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Table representation of search results timeline featuring number of search results per year.

Year Number of Results
1800 1
1801 2
1849 1
1853 1
1899 1
1907 1
1911 1
1912 1
1914 1
1917 1
1924 1
1926 2
1929 1
1933 2
1938 1
1940 1
1946 1
1947 2
1948 1
1949 3
1950 7
1951 6
1952 2
1953 5
1954 7
1955 12
1956 8
1957 2
1958 10
1959 10
1960 7
1961 4
1962 9
1963 3
1964 15
1965 10
1966 17
1967 25
1968 33
1969 32
1970 57
1971 80
1972 125
1973 176
1974 153
1975 230
1976 286
1977 315
1978 345
1979 465
1980 591
1981 655
1982 882
1983 974
1984 915
1985 867
1986 931
1987 860
1988 797
1989 821
1990 852
1991 759
1992 784
1993 817
1994 826
1995 818
1996 824
1997 864
1998 869
1999 844
2000 929
2001 923
2002 890
2003 944
2004 935
2005 1082
2006 1158
2007 1074
2008 1176
2009 1159
2010 1216
2011 1261
2012 1300
2013 1434
2014 1466
2015 1506
2016 1442
2017 1548
2018 1704
2019 1945
2020 2199
2021 2350
2022 2161
2023 1936
2024 591

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48,852 results

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Page 1
The United States opioid epidemic.
Lyden J, Binswanger IA. Lyden J, et al. Semin Perinatol. 2019 Apr;43(3):123-131. doi: 10.1053/j.semperi.2019.01.001. Epub 2019 Jan 14. Semin Perinatol. 2019. PMID: 30711195 Free PMC article. Review.
The United States opioid epidemic is a nationwide public health crisis. Initially driven by increased consumption and availability of pharmaceutical opioids, an increasing number of opioid overdoses are now related to heroin and illicitly manufactured fentany …
The United States opioid epidemic is a nationwide public health crisis. Initially driven by increased consumption and availability of …
Opioid receptors.
Waldhoer M, Bartlett SE, Whistler JL. Waldhoer M, et al. Annu Rev Biochem. 2004;73:953-90. doi: 10.1146/annurev.biochem.73.011303.073940. Annu Rev Biochem. 2004. PMID: 15189164 Review.
They are activated both by endogenously produced opioid peptides and by exogenously administered opiate compounds, some of which are not only among the most effective analgesics known but also highly addictive drugs of abuse. A fundamental question in addiction biol …
They are activated both by endogenously produced opioid peptides and by exogenously administered opiate compounds, some of whi …
Respiratory depression and brain hypoxia induced by opioid drugs: Morphine, oxycodone, heroin, and fentanyl.
Kiyatkin EA. Kiyatkin EA. Neuropharmacology. 2019 Jun;151:219-226. doi: 10.1016/j.neuropharm.2019.02.008. Epub 2019 Feb 5. Neuropharmacology. 2019. PMID: 30735692 Free PMC article. Review.
Opioid drugs are important tools to alleviate pain of different origins, but they have strong addictive potential and their abuse at higher doses often results in serious health complications. ...The goal of this review paper is to consider changes in brain oxygen levels i
Opioid drugs are important tools to alleviate pain of different origins, but they have strong addictive potential and their abuse at
Fentanyl depression of respiration: Comparison with heroin and morphine.
Hill R, Santhakumar R, Dewey W, Kelly E, Henderson G. Hill R, et al. Br J Pharmacol. 2020 Jan;177(2):254-266. doi: 10.1111/bph.14860. Epub 2019 Dec 23. Br J Pharmacol. 2020. PMID: 31499594 Free PMC article.
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Fentanyl overdose deaths have reached "epidemic" levels in North America. Death in opioid overdose invariably results from respiratory depression. In the present work, we have characterized how fentanyl depresses respiration, and by comparing fentan …
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Fentanyl overdose deaths have reached "epidemic" levels in North America. Death in opioid overdose invariably …
Trajectories of prescription opioid and heroin use in adulthood.
Veliz P, Schulenberg JE, McCabe VV, McCabe SE. Veliz P, et al. Am J Addict. 2022 May;31(3):180-188. doi: 10.1111/ajad.13281. Epub 2022 Mar 30. Am J Addict. 2022. PMID: 35355371 Free PMC article.
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Due to a reduction in the availability of prescription opioids in the United States, the potential transition from prescription opioids to heroin is a public health concern. We assessed trajectories of both nonmedical prescription opioid ( …
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Due to a reduction in the availability of prescription opioids in the United States, the potential transition fro …
Xylazine effects on opioid-induced brain hypoxia.
Choi S, Irwin MR, Kiyatkin EA. Choi S, et al. Psychopharmacology (Berl). 2023 Jul;240(7):1561-1571. doi: 10.1007/s00213-023-06390-y. Epub 2023 Jun 21. Psychopharmacology (Berl). 2023. PMID: 37340247 Free PMC article.
RATIONALE: Xylazine has emerged in recent years as an adulterant in an increasing number of opioid-positive overdose deaths in the United States. Although its exact role in opioid-induced overdose deaths is largely unknown, xylazine is known to depress vital functio …
RATIONALE: Xylazine has emerged in recent years as an adulterant in an increasing number of opioid-positive overdose deaths in the Un …
Cannabinoid and opioid interactions: implications for opiate dependence and withdrawal.
Scavone JL, Sterling RC, Van Bockstaele EJ. Scavone JL, et al. Neuroscience. 2013 Sep 17;248:637-54. doi: 10.1016/j.neuroscience.2013.04.034. Epub 2013 Apr 24. Neuroscience. 2013. PMID: 23624062 Free PMC article. Review.
High rates of relapse and limited treatment success rates for opiate addiction have prompted a search for new approaches. For many opiate addicts, achieving abstinence may be further complicated by poly-drug use and co-morbid mental disorders. ...In summary, the pre …
High rates of relapse and limited treatment success rates for opiate addiction have prompted a search for new approaches. For many …
The motives and methods of methamphetamine and 'heroin' co-use in West Virginia.
Ondocsin J, Holm N, Mars SG, Ciccarone D. Ondocsin J, et al. Harm Reduct J. 2023 Jul 12;20(1):88. doi: 10.1186/s12954-023-00816-8. Harm Reduct J. 2023. PMID: 37438812 Free PMC article.
BACKGROUND: Opioid and methamphetamine co-use is increasing across the USA with overdoses involving these drugs also rising. ...Beliefs persist that methamphetamine can play a role in preventing and reversing opioid overdose, including some arguments for sequential …
BACKGROUND: Opioid and methamphetamine co-use is increasing across the USA with overdoses involving these drugs also rising. ...Belie …
Heroin- and Fentanyl-Induced Respiratory Depression in a Rat Plethysmography Model: Potency, Tolerance, and Sex Differences.
Marchette RCN, Carlson ER, Frye EV, Hastings LE, Vendruscolo JCM, Mejias-Torres G, Lewis SJ, Hampson A, Volkow ND, Vendruscolo LF, Koob GF. Marchette RCN, et al. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2023 May;385(2):117-134. doi: 10.1124/jpet.122.001476. Epub 2023 Feb 24. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2023. PMID: 36828628 Free PMC article.
We characterized the magnitude and duration of respiratory depression, the leading cause of death in opioid overdose cases, induced by heroin or fentanyl and the development of tolerance in male and female rats. We used whole-body plethysmography to first establish …
We characterized the magnitude and duration of respiratory depression, the leading cause of death in opioid overdose cases, induced b …
Editorial: Prescription for Addiction.
Riggs P. Riggs P. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry. 2019 Jul;58(7):659-660. doi: 10.1016/j.jaac.2019.03.030. Epub 2019 Apr 17. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry. 2019. PMID: 31002865
About 70% started using in the past year, and about half report nonmedical use of prescription opioid medications. Misuse of prescription opioid medication is associated with 19 times greater risk of transitioning to heroin compared to no misuse.(2) Although …
About 70% started using in the past year, and about half report nonmedical use of prescription opioid medications. Misuse of prescrip …
48,852 results
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