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Table representation of search results timeline featuring number of search results per year.

Year Number of Results
2003 5
2004 2
2005 3
2006 1
2007 3
2008 2
2009 3
2010 5
2011 3
2012 8
2013 4
2014 17
2015 23
2016 21
2017 20
2018 28
2019 34
2020 35
2021 49
2022 36
2023 46
2024 29

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330 results

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Page 1
Specifying a target trial prevents immortal time bias and other self-inflicted injuries in observational analyses.
Hernán MA, Sauer BC, Hernández-Díaz S, Platt R, Shrier I. Hernán MA, et al. J Clin Epidemiol. 2016 Nov;79:70-75. doi: 10.1016/j.jclinepi.2016.04.014. Epub 2016 May 27. J Clin Epidemiol. 2016. PMID: 27237061 Free PMC article. Review.
Many analyses of observational data are attempts to emulate a target trial. The emulation of the target trial may fail when researchers deviate from simple principles that guide the design and analysis of randomized experiments. We review a framework to descr …
Many analyses of observational data are attempts to emulate a target trial. The emulation of the target trial may fail when re …
Immortal time bias.
Obel N. Obel N. AIDS. 2015 Apr 24;29(7):859-60. doi: 10.1097/QAD.0000000000000582. AIDS. 2015. PMID: 25985408 No abstract available.
Emulating a Target Trial of Interventions Initiated During Pregnancy with Healthcare Databases: The Example of COVID-19 Vaccination.
Hernández-Díaz S, Huybrechts KF, Chiu YH, Yland JJ, Bateman BT, Hernán MA. Hernández-Díaz S, et al. Epidemiology. 2023 Mar 1;34(2):238-246. doi: 10.1097/EDE.0000000000001562. Epub 2022 Nov 11. Epidemiology. 2023. PMID: 36722806 Free PMC article.
We identify challenges that affect (i) the target trial and thus its observational emulation (censoring and competing events), and (ii) mostly the observational emulation (confounding, immortal time, and measurement biases). CONCLUSION: Some biases may be una …
We identify challenges that affect (i) the target trial and thus its observational emulation (censoring and competing events), and (i …
Association of Immune-Related Adverse Events With Efficacy of Atezolizumab in Patients With Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer: Pooled Analyses of the Phase 3 IMpower130, IMpower132, and IMpower150 Randomized Clinical Trials.
Socinski MA, Jotte RM, Cappuzzo F, Nishio M, Mok TSK, Reck M, Finley GG, Kaul MD, Yu W, Paranthaman N, Bara I, West HJ. Socinski MA, et al. JAMA Oncol. 2023 Apr 1;9(4):527-535. doi: 10.1001/jamaoncol.2022.7711. JAMA Oncol. 2023. PMID: 36795388 Free PMC article.
DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: IMpower130, IMpower132, and IMpower150 were phase 3, multicenter, open-label, randomized clinical trials to evaluate the efficacy and safety of chemoimmunotherapy combinations involving atezolizumab. ...MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES: …
DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: IMpower130, IMpower132, and IMpower150 were phase 3, multicenter, open-label, randomized clinic
How to estimate the effect of treatment duration on survival outcomes using observational data.
Hernán MA. Hernán MA. BMJ. 2018 Feb 1;360:k182. doi: 10.1136/bmj.k182. BMJ. 2018. PMID: 29419381 Free PMC article.
The third step is performing inverse probability weighting to adjust for the potential selection bias introduced by censoring. The procedure can be used to compare any treatment strategies that are sustained over time. Cloning, censoring, and weighting eliminates …
The third step is performing inverse probability weighting to adjust for the potential selection bias introduced by censoring. The pr …
Timing of dialysis initiation to reduce mortality and cardiovascular events in advanced chronic kidney disease: nationwide cohort study.
Fu EL, Evans M, Carrero JJ, Putter H, Clase CM, Caskey FJ, Szymczak M, Torino C, Chesnaye NC, Jager KJ, Wanner C, Dekker FW, van Diepen M. Fu EL, et al. BMJ. 2021 Nov 29;375:e066306. doi: 10.1136/bmj-2021-066306. BMJ. 2021. PMID: 34844936 Free PMC article.
PARTICIPANTS: Patients had a baseline eGFR between 10 and 20 mL/min/1.73 m(2) and were included between 1 January 2007 and 31 December 2016, with follow-up until 1 June 2017. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: The strict design criteria of a clinical trial were mimicked by usin …
PARTICIPANTS: Patients had a baseline eGFR between 10 and 20 mL/min/1.73 m(2) and were included between 1 January 2007 and 31 December 2016, …
Emulating Target Trials to Avoid Immortal Time Bias - An Application to Antibiotic Initiation and Preterm Delivery.
Caniglia EC, Zash R, Fennell C, Diseko M, Mayondi G, Heintz J, Mmalane M, Makhema J, Lockman S, Mumford SL, Murray EJ, Hernández-Díaz S, Shapiro R. Caniglia EC, et al. Epidemiology. 2023 May 1;34(3):430-438. doi: 10.1097/EDE.0000000000001601. Epub 2023 Feb 20. Epidemiology. 2023. PMID: 36805380 Free PMC article.
However, such studies are often susceptible to immortal time bias if treatment initiation occurs after time zero of follow-up. ...Conducting a sequence of target trials can avoid immortal time bias in pregnancy studies....
However, such studies are often susceptible to immortal time bias if treatment initiation occurs after time zero …
Understanding and identifying immortal-time bias in surgical health services research: An example using surgical resection of stage IV breast cancer.
Jackson BE, Greenup RA, Strassle PD, Deal AM, Baggett CD, Lund JL, Reeder-Hayes KE. Jackson BE, et al. Surg Oncol. 2021 Jun;37:101539. doi: 10.1016/j.suronc.2021.101539. Epub 2021 Mar 5. Surg Oncol. 2021. PMID: 33706057 Review.
In this paper, we describe what immortal-time bias is, the challenges it presents, and how to recognize and address it using the real-world example of surgical resection of the primary tumor for stage IV breast cancer throughout. In our example, we guide rese …
In this paper, we describe what immortal-time bias is, the challenges it presents, and how to recognize and address it …
Statins and lower mortality in rheumatic diseases: An effect of immortal time bias?
Abrahami D, Hudson M, Suissa S. Abrahami D, et al. Semin Arthritis Rheum. 2021 Feb;51(1):211-218. doi: 10.1016/j.semarthrit.2020.11.010. Epub 2020 Dec 19. Semin Arthritis Rheum. 2021. PMID: 33385861 Review.
In contrast, immortal time bias through random-calendar date assignment, which tends to play down the effectiveness by introducing immortal time in the comparator, reported 16% to 37% reductions in mortality. ...Future observational studi …
In contrast, immortal time bias through random-calendar date assignment, which tends to play down the effectiven …
330 results