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Table representation of search results timeline featuring number of search results per year.

Year Number of Results
2003 5
2004 2
2005 3
2006 1
2007 3
2008 2
2009 3
2010 5
2011 3
2012 8
2013 4
2014 17
2015 23
2016 21
2017 20
2018 28
2019 34
2020 35
2021 48
2022 12
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238 results
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Specifying a target trial prevents immortal time bias and other self-inflicted injuries in observational analyses.
Hernán MA, Sauer BC, Hernández-Díaz S, Platt R, Shrier I. Hernán MA, et al. J Clin Epidemiol. 2016 Nov;79:70-75. doi: 10.1016/j.jclinepi.2016.04.014. Epub 2016 May 27. J Clin Epidemiol. 2016. PMID: 27237061 Free PMC article. Review.
Many analyses of observational data are attempts to emulate a target trial. The emulation of the target trial may fail when researchers deviate from simple principles that guide the design and analysis of randomized experiments. We review a framework to descr …
Many analyses of observational data are attempts to emulate a target trial. The emulation of the target trial may fail when re …
Time-related biases in pharmacoepidemiology.
Suissa S, Dell'Aniello S. Suissa S, et al. Pharmacoepidemiol Drug Saf. 2020 Sep;29(9):1101-1110. doi: 10.1002/pds.5083. Epub 2020 Aug 11. Pharmacoepidemiol Drug Saf. 2020. PMID: 32783283
Inhaled corticosteroids (ICS) and long-acting bronchodilators were used as exposures, with diverse outcomes, including lung cancer, acute myocardial infarction and death, to illustrate protopathic, latency time, immortal time, time-window, depletion of …
Inhaled corticosteroids (ICS) and long-acting bronchodilators were used as exposures, with diverse outcomes, including lung cancer, acute my …
Statins and lower mortality in rheumatic diseases: An effect of immortal time bias?
Abrahami D, Hudson M, Suissa S. Abrahami D, et al. Semin Arthritis Rheum. 2021 Feb;51(1):211-218. doi: 10.1016/j.semarthrit.2020.11.010. Epub 2020 Dec 19. Semin Arthritis Rheum. 2021. PMID: 33385861 Review.
In contrast, immortal time bias through random-calendar date assignment, which tends to play down the effectiveness by introducing immortal time in the comparator, reported 16% to 37% reductions in mortality. ...Future observational studi …
In contrast, immortal time bias through random-calendar date assignment, which tends to play down the effectiven …
Immortal time bias in the association between toxicity and response for immune checkpoint inhibitors: a meta-analysis.
Dall'Olio FG, Rizzo A, Mollica V, Massucci M, Maggio I, Massari F. Dall'Olio FG, et al. Immunotherapy. 2021 Feb;13(3):257-270. doi: 10.2217/imt-2020-0179. Epub 2020 Nov 23. Immunotherapy. 2021. PMID: 33225800
Only a minority of studies addressing the association between immune-related adverse events (IrAE) and outcome considered the immortal time bias, with conflicting results. PubMed, Embase, Web of Science and Scopus were searched through 2 January 2020. ...With …
Only a minority of studies addressing the association between immune-related adverse events (IrAE) and outcome considered the immortal
Examining Bias in Studies of Statin Treatment and Survival in Patients With Cancer.
Emilsson L, García-Albéniz X, Logan RW, Caniglia EC, Kalager M, Hernán MA. Emilsson L, et al. JAMA Oncol. 2018 Jan 1;4(1):63-70. doi: 10.1001/jamaoncol.2017.2752. JAMA Oncol. 2018. PMID: 28822996 Free PMC article.
However, this inverse association between statin use and mortality may be due to selection bias and immortal-time bias. OBJECTIVE: To emulate a randomized trial of statin therapy initiation that is free of selection bias and imm
However, this inverse association between statin use and mortality may be due to selection bias and immortal-time bi
Understanding and identifying immortal-time bias in surgical health services research: An example using surgical resection of stage IV breast cancer.
Jackson BE, Greenup RA, Strassle PD, Deal AM, Baggett CD, Lund JL, Reeder-Hayes KE. Jackson BE, et al. Surg Oncol. 2021 Jun;37:101539. doi: 10.1016/j.suronc.2021.101539. Epub 2021 Mar 5. Surg Oncol. 2021. PMID: 33706057 Review.
In this paper, we describe what immortal-time bias is, the challenges it presents, and how to recognize and address it using the real-world example of surgical resection of the primary tumor for stage IV breast cancer throughout. In our example, we guide rese …
In this paper, we describe what immortal-time bias is, the challenges it presents, and how to recognize and address it …
Late-onset and long-lasting immune-related adverse events from immune checkpoint-inhibitors: An overlooked aspect in immunotherapy.
Ghisoni E, Wicky A, Bouchaab H, Imbimbo M, Delyon J, Gautron Moura B, Gérard CL, Latifyan S, Özdemir BC, Caikovski M, Pradervand S, Tavazzi E, Gatta R, Marandino L, Valabrega G, Aglietta M, Obeid M, Homicsko K, Mederos Alfonso NN, Zimmermann S, Coukos G, Peters S, Cuendet MA, Di Maio M, Michielin O. Ghisoni E, et al. Eur J Cancer. 2021 May;149:153-164. doi: 10.1016/j.ejca.2021.03.010. Epub 2021 Apr 14. Eur J Cancer. 2021. PMID: 33865201 Free article.
We analysed real-world data from all lung cancer (LC) and melanoma (Mel) patients treated with approved ICIs at the University Hospital of Lausanne (CHUV) from 2011 to 2019. To account for the immortal time bias, we used a time-dependent analysis to as …
We analysed real-world data from all lung cancer (LC) and melanoma (Mel) patients treated with approved ICIs at the University Hospital of L …
Warning of Immortal Time Bias When Studying Drug Safety in Pregnancy: Application to Late Use of Antibiotics and Preterm Delivery.
Corrao G, Rea F, Franchi M, Beccalli B, Locatelli A, Cantarutti A. Corrao G, et al. Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2020 Sep 5;17(18):6465. doi: 10.3390/ijerph17186465. Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2020. PMID: 32899455 Free PMC article.
This study aimed to illustrate and account for immortal time bias in pregnancy observational investigations, using the relationship between late use of antibiotics and risk of preterm birth as an example. ...The same trend was found for low birth weight and l …
This study aimed to illustrate and account for immortal time bias in pregnancy observational investigations, using the …
Conducting Real-world Evidence Studies on the Clinical Outcomes of Diabetes Treatments.
Schneeweiss S, Patorno E. Schneeweiss S, et al. Endocr Rev. 2021 Sep 28;42(5):658-690. doi: 10.1210/endrev/bnab007. Endocr Rev. 2021. PMID: 33710268 Free PMC article.
Real-world evidence (RWE), the understanding of treatment effectiveness in clinical practice generated from longitudinal patient-level data from the routine operation of the healthcare system, is thought to complement evidence on the efficacy of medications from randomi
Real-world evidence (RWE), the understanding of treatment effectiveness in clinical practice generated from longitudinal patient-leve …
Metformin and pancreatic cancer survival: Real effect or immortal time bias?
Wei M, Liu Y, Bi Y, Zhang ZJ. Wei M, et al. Int J Cancer. 2019 Oct 1;145(7):1822-1828. doi: 10.1002/ijc.32254. Epub 2019 Mar 25. Int J Cancer. 2019. PMID: 30848544 Free article.
Our study aimed to examine whether metformin therapy improves pancreatic cancer survival, and to assess the impact of immortal time bias on the effect estimation of metformin in cohort studies. ...The association between metformin and pancreatic cancer surviv …
Our study aimed to examine whether metformin therapy improves pancreatic cancer survival, and to assess the impact of immortal tim
238 results