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American Children's Screen Time: Diminished Returns of Household Income in Black Families.
Assari S. Assari S. Information (Basel). 2020 Nov;11(11):538. doi: 10.3390/info11110538. Epub 2020 Nov 20. Information (Basel). 2020. PMID: 33282415 Free PMC article.
While increased household income is associated with overall decreased screen time for children, less is known about the effect of racial variation on this association. According to Minorities' Diminished Returns (MDRs) theory, family income and other economic resources sho …
While increased household income is associated with overall decreased screen time for children, less is known about the effect of racial var …
Family's Subjective Economic Status and Children's Matrix Reasoning: Blacks' Diminished Returns.
Assari S, Boyce S. Assari S, et al. Res Health Sci. 2021 Nov 29;6(1):1-23. doi: 10.22158/rhs.v6n1p1. Epub 2020 Nov 29. Res Health Sci. 2021. PMID: 33299959
BACKGROUND: Due to a pattern known as Marginalization-related Diminished Returns (MDRs), historically oppressed non-Hispanic Black Americans show weaker effects of economic status on health and development, when compared to socially privileged non-Hispanic White Americans. …
BACKGROUND: Due to a pattern known as Marginalization-related Diminished Returns (MDRs), historically oppressed non-Hispanic Black Am …
African American Children's Diminished Returns of Subjective Family Socioeconomic Status on Fun Seeking.
Assari S, Akhlaghipour G, Boyce S, Bazargan M, Caldwell CH. Assari S, et al. Children (Basel). 2020 Jul 9;7(7):75. doi: 10.3390/children7070075. Children (Basel). 2020. PMID: 32660094 Free PMC article.
It is plausible to expect weaker protective effects of family SES on reward sensitivity in racial minorities, a pattern called Minorities' Diminished Returns (MDRs). Aim: We compared Caucasian and African American (AA) children for the effects of subjective family SES on c …
It is plausible to expect weaker protective effects of family SES on reward sensitivity in racial minorities, a pattern called Minorities' …
Age-Related Decline in Children's Reward Sensitivity: Blacks' Diminished Returns.
Assari S. Assari S. Res Health Sci. 2020;5(3):112-128. doi: 10.22158/rhs.v5n3p112. Epub 2020 Nov 6. Res Health Sci. 2020. PMID: 33274304 Free PMC article.
While ageing reduces children's reward sensitivity and its associated risk taking, there is more to find out about racial differences in regard to the effect of age on reward sensitivity. Minorities' Diminished Returns (MDRs) suggest that resources and assets show weaker e …
While ageing reduces children's reward sensitivity and its associated risk taking, there is more to find out about racial differences in reg …
Household Income and Children's Depressive Symptoms: Immigrants' Diminished Returns.
Assari S. Assari S. Int J Travel Med Glob Health. 2020 Fall;8(4):157-164. doi: 10.34172/IJTMGH.2020.27. Int J Travel Med Glob Health. 2020. PMID: 34036110 Free PMC article.
INTRODUCTION: Relative to socially privileged groups, socially marginalized people experience weaker health effects of household income and other economic resources, a pattern known as Minorities' Diminished Returns (MDRs). These MDRs are frequently seen in racial and ethn …
INTRODUCTION: Relative to socially privileged groups, socially marginalized people experience weaker health effects of household income and …
A Dream Deferred: African American Women's Diminished Socioeconomic Returns of Postponing Childbearing from Teenage to Adulthood.
Assari S, Boyce S, Bazargan M, Caldwell CH. Assari S, et al. Reprod Med (Basel). 2020 Sep;1(2):62-76. doi: 10.3390/reprodmed1020005. Epub 2020 Jul 1. Reprod Med (Basel). 2020. PMID: 32803191 Free PMC article.
BACKGROUND: Brookings Institution has identified postponing childbirth from teenage to adulthood as a major strategy that is needed for upward social mobility of women. However, according to the Minorities' Diminished Returns (MDRs), the associations between aspirations, i …
BACKGROUND: Brookings Institution has identified postponing childbirth from teenage to adulthood as a major strategy that is needed for upwa …
Household Income and Children's Unmet Dental Care Need; Blacks' Diminished Return.
Assari S, Hani N. Assari S, et al. Dent J (Basel). 2018 Jun 4;6(2):17. doi: 10.3390/dj6020017. Dent J (Basel). 2018. PMID: 29867015 Free PMC article.
Background: Minorities' Diminished Return theory is defined as the relative disadvantage of minority populations compared to Whites regarding health gains that follow socioeconomic status (SES). To test whether Minorities' Diminished Return theory holds for unmet de …
Background: Minorities' Diminished Return theory is defined as the relative disadvantage of minority populations compared to Whites r …
Parental Education and Spanking of American Children: Blacks' Diminished Returns.
Assari S. Assari S. World J Educ Res. 2020;7(3):19-44. doi: 10.22158/wjer.v7n3p19. World J Educ Res. 2020. PMID: 32734000 Free PMC article.
BACKGROUND: Based on the Minorities' Diminished Returns (MDRs) framework, high socioeconomic status (SES) indicators such as parental education shows weaker protective effects against adverse experiences for Blacks than Whites. ...Not all health disparities are due to raci …
BACKGROUND: Based on the Minorities' Diminished Returns (MDRs) framework, high socioeconomic status (SES) indicators such as parental …
Parental Educational Attainment and Social Environmental of Urban Public Schools in the U.S.: Blacks' Diminished Returns.
Boyce S, Bazargan M, Caldwell CH, Zimmerman MA, Assari S. Boyce S, et al. Among authors: assari s. Children (Basel). 2020 May 10;7(5):44. doi: 10.3390/children7050044. Children (Basel). 2020. PMID: 32397657 Free PMC article.
BACKGROUND: Recent research has documented marginalization-related diminished returns (MDRs) of socioeconomic status (SES), defined as weaker effects of SES indicators, such as parental educational attainment, on securing tangible outcomes for the members of socially margi …
BACKGROUND: Recent research has documented marginalization-related diminished returns (MDRs) of socioeconomic status (SES), defined a …
Mental Rotation in American Children: Diminished Returns of Parental Education in Black Families.
Assari S. Assari S. Pediatr Rep. 2020 Nov 20;12(3):130-141. doi: 10.3390/pediatric12030028. Pediatr Rep. 2020. PMID: 33233814 Free PMC article.
Background: While parental education and family socioeconomic status (SES) are associated with an increase in children's cognitive functioning, and less is known about racial variation in these effects. Minorities' Diminished Returns (MDRs) suggest that, under racism and s …
Background: While parental education and family socioeconomic status (SES) are associated with an increase in children's cognitive functioni …
Race, Educational Attainment, and E-Cigarette Use.
Assari S, Mistry R, Bazargan M. Assari S, et al. J Med Res Innov. 2020;4(1):10.32892/jmri.185. doi: 10.32892/jmri.185. Epub 2019 Sep 14. J Med Res Innov. 2020. PMID: 32090188 Free PMC article.
BACKGROUND: Although higher educational attainment lowers high-risk behaviors such as substance use, according to the Minorities' Diminished Returns theory, the effect of educational attainment may be smaller for Blacks than Whites. ...
BACKGROUND: Although higher educational attainment lowers high-risk behaviors such as substance use, according to the Minorities' Diminis
Diminished Returns of Educational Attainment on Heart Disease among Black Americans.
Assari S, Cobb S, Saqib M, Bazargan M. Assari S, et al. Open Cardiovasc Med J. 2020;14:5-12. doi: 10.2174/1874192402014010005. Epub 2020 Apr 16. Open Cardiovasc Med J. 2020. PMID: 32399080 Free PMC article.
BACKGROUND: Socioeconomic Status (SES) indicators, such as educational attainment, are social determinants of heart disease. Marginalization related Diminished Returns (MDRs) refer to smaller health benefits of high SES for racial and ethnic minorities compared to the majo …
BACKGROUND: Socioeconomic Status (SES) indicators, such as educational attainment, are social determinants of heart disease. Marginalization …
Marital Status and Physical Health: Racial Differences.
Assari S, Bazargan M. Assari S, et al. Int J Epidemiol Res. 2019 Summer;6(3):108-113. Int J Epidemiol Res. 2019. PMID: 31572801 Free PMC article.
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: As suggested by the Minorities' Diminished Return theory, the association between socioeconomic status and health is weaker for racial and ethnic minorities compared to Whites. ...
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: As suggested by the Minorities' Diminished Return theory, the association between socioeconomic status and …
Diminished Returns of Income Against Cigarette Smoking Among Chinese Americans.
Assari S. Assari S. J Health Econ Dev. 2019 Summer;1(2):1-8. Epub 2019 Oct 1. J Health Econ Dev. 2019. PMID: 32195481 Free PMC article.
INTRODUCTION: Although educational attainment and income are protective against tobacco use, Marginalization-related Diminished Returns (MDRs) theory posits that the protective effects of socioeconomic status (SES) indicators may be smaller for marginalized groups than mai …
INTRODUCTION: Although educational attainment and income are protective against tobacco use, Marginalization-related Diminished Retur …
Education Level and Self-rated Health in the United States: Immigrants' Diminished Returns.
Assari S, Perez MU, Johnson N, Williams NR, Carrillo E, Garcia L, Hollis XT. Assari S, et al. Int J Travel Med Glob Health. 2020 Summer;8(3):116-123. doi: 10.34172/ijtmgh.2020.20. Int J Travel Med Glob Health. 2020. PMID: 32905455 Free PMC article.
INTRODUCTION: Although education is among the major socioeconomic status (SES) resources that influence populations' and individuals' health, social marginalization may reduce the health gain that follows access to SES indicators such as education, a pattern called marginalizatio …
INTRODUCTION: Although education is among the major socioeconomic status (SES) resources that influence populations' and individuals' health …
Parental Education, Household Income, and Cortical Surface Area among 9-10 Years Old Children: Minorities' Diminished Returns.
Assari S. Assari S. Brain Sci. 2020 Dec 9;10(12):956. doi: 10.3390/brainsci10120956. Brain Sci. 2020. PMID: 33317053 Free PMC article.
Introduction: Although the effects of parental education and household income on children's brain development are well established, less is known about possible variation in these effects across diverse racial and ethnic groups. According to the Minorities' Diminished Retu …
Introduction: Although the effects of parental education and household income on children's brain development are well established, less is …
Subjective Family Socioeconomic Status and Adolescents' Attention: Blacks' Diminished Returns.
Assari S, Boyce S, Bazargan M. Assari S, et al. Children (Basel). 2020 Jul 23;7(8):80. doi: 10.3390/children7080080. Children (Basel). 2020. PMID: 32718077 Free PMC article.
The existing knowledge is, however, minimal about the role of attention in explaining the diminished returns of the families' SES with regard to the adolescents' outcomes. ...Conclusion: The boosting effect of subjective family SES on attention is diminished for NHB …
The existing knowledge is, however, minimal about the role of attention in explaining the diminished returns of the families' SES wit …
College Graduation and Wealth Accumulation: Blacks' Diminished Returns.
Assari S. Assari S. World J Educ Res. 2020;7(3):1-18. doi: 10.22158/wjer.v7n3p1. Epub 2020 Jun 28. World J Educ Res. 2020. PMID: 32802944 Free PMC article.
BACKGROUND: Based on the Minorities' Diminished Returns (MDRs) framework, indicators of high socioeconomic status (SES), such as high maternal educational attainment, show weaker protective effects on various developmental, behavioral, and health outcomes for Black than Wh …
BACKGROUND: Based on the Minorities' Diminished Returns (MDRs) framework, indicators of high socioeconomic status (SES), such as high …
Diminished Return of Employment on Ever Smoking Among Hispanic Whites in Los Angeles.
Assari S, Mistry R. Assari S, et al. Health Equity. 2019 Apr 11;3(1):138-144. doi: 10.1089/heq.2018.0070. eCollection 2019. Health Equity. 2019. PMID: 31289772 Free PMC article.
Purpose: According to the Minorities' Diminished Return (MDR) theory, socioeconomic status (SES) indicators such as employment status produce smaller tangible outcomes for racial and ethnic minority groups, however, very limited information exists on such diminished
Purpose: According to the Minorities' Diminished Return (MDR) theory, socioeconomic status (SES) indicators such as employment status …
Place-Based Diminished Returns of Parental Educational Attainment on School Performance of Non-Hispanic White Youth.
Assari S, Boyce S, Bazargan M, Caldwell CH, Zimmerman MA. Assari S, et al. Front Educ (Lausanne). 2020 Apr;5:30. doi: 10.3389/feduc.2020.00030. Epub 2020 Apr 9. Front Educ (Lausanne). 2020. PMID: 32596626 Free PMC article.
This effect, however, is shown to be smaller for African American, Hispanic, and Asian American youth, a pattern called Marginalization-related Diminished Returns (MDRs). It is, however, unknown if it is race/ethnicity or other conditions associated with race/ethnicity (e. …
This effect, however, is shown to be smaller for African American, Hispanic, and Asian American youth, a pattern called Marginalization-rela …
Subjective Socioeconomic Status and Children's Amygdala Volume: Minorities' Diminish Returns.
Assari S, Boyce S, Bazargan M. Assari S, et al. NeuroSci. 2020 Dec;1(2):59-74. doi: 10.3390/neurosci1020006. Epub 2020 Oct 5. NeuroSci. 2020. PMID: 33103157 Free PMC article.
Considering race and ethnicity as sociological rather than biological constructs, this study was built on minorities' diminished returns (MDRs) to test if the effects of family SES on the total amygdala volume is weaker for black and Latino children than white and non-Lati …
Considering race and ethnicity as sociological rather than biological constructs, this study was built on minorities' diminished retu …
Socioeconomic Status and Current Cigarette Smoking Status: Immigrants' Diminished Returns.
Assari S. Assari S. Int J Travel Med Glob Health. 2020 Spring;8(2):66-72. doi: 10.34172/IJTMGH.2020.11. Int J Travel Med Glob Health. 2020. PMID: 32656271 Free PMC article.
INTRODUCTION: Although socioeconomic status (SES) resources influence population and individual health behaviors, socially marginalized groups gain significantly less health from their SES indicators, such as education and income, compared to the socially privileged groups. This …
INTRODUCTION: Although socioeconomic status (SES) resources influence population and individual health behaviors, socially marginalized grou …
Educational Attainment and Tobacco Harm Knowledge Among American Adults: Diminished Returns of African Americans and Hispanics.
Assari S, Bazargan M. Assari S, et al. Int J Epidemiol Res. 2020 Winter;7(1):http://ijer.skums.ac.ir/article_37230_1b660b357edc924c767ce72f1430ab14.pdf. Int J Epidemiol Res. 2020. PMID: 32219175 Free PMC article.
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Minorities' Diminished Returns (MDRs) refer to the smaller effects of educational attainment for ethnic minorities compared to the majority group. ...
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Minorities' Diminished Returns (MDRs) refer to the smaller effects of educational attainment for ethnic mi …
Education Attainment and Obesity:Differential Returns Based on Sexual Orientation.
Assari S. Assari S. Behav Sci (Basel). 2019 Jan 29;9(2):16. doi: 10.3390/bs9020016. Behav Sci (Basel). 2019. PMID: 30699932 Free PMC article.
Background: Although high educational attainment is linked to better health and lower health risk behaviors, this effect may be systemically smaller for racial and ethnic minority groups compared to Whites. However, it is still unknown whether these diminished returns also …
Background: Although high educational attainment is linked to better health and lower health risk behaviors, this effect may be systemically …
Parental Human Capital and Adolescents' Executive Function: Immigrants' Diminished Returns.
Assari S, Akhlaghipour G, Boyce S, Bazargan M, Caldwell CH. Assari S, et al. Med Res Arch. 2020 Oct;8(10):10.18103/mra.v8i10.2235. doi: 10.18103/mra.v8i10.2235. Epub 2020 Nov 16. Med Res Arch. 2020. PMID: 33251336 Free PMC article.
Racial minorities, particularly non-Hispanic Blacks in the US, experience weaker effects of family socioeconomic position (SEP) on tangible outcomes, a pattern called Minorities' Diminished Returns (MDRs). These MDRs are frequently shown for the effects of family SEP on im …
Racial minorities, particularly non-Hispanic Blacks in the US, experience weaker effects of family socioeconomic position (SEP) on tangible …
Socioeconomic Determinants of Systolic Blood Pressure; Minorities' Diminished Returns.
Assari S. Assari S. J Health Econ Dev. 2019 Spring;1(1):1-11. J Health Econ Dev. 2019. PMID: 31428747 Free PMC article.
BACKGROUND: Although socioeconomic position (SEP) is associated with better health, the protective effects of high SEP may be smaller for racial and ethnic minorities than Whites, as explained by Minorities' Diminished Returns theory. It is still unknown whether the associ …
BACKGROUND: Although socioeconomic position (SEP) is associated with better health, the protective effects of high SEP may be smaller for ra …
Education Attainment and Alcohol Binge Drinking: Diminished Returns of Hispanics in Los Angeles.
Assari S, Farokhnia M, Mistry R. Assari S, et al. Behav Sci (Basel). 2019 Jan 14;9(1):9. doi: 10.3390/bs9010009. Behav Sci (Basel). 2019. PMID: 30646592 Free PMC article.
According to the minorities' diminished returns (MDR) theory, socioeconomic status (SES) indicators such as education attainment have smaller protective effects on health risk behaviors for racial and ethnic minority groups in comparison to the 'dominant' social group. How …
According to the minorities' diminished returns (MDR) theory, socioeconomic status (SES) indicators such as education attainment have …
Diminished Returns of Parental Education in Terms of Youth School Performance: Ruling out Regression toward the Mean.
Assari S, Boyce S, Bazargan M, Caldwell CH. Assari S, et al. Children (Basel). 2020 Jul 7;7(7):74. doi: 10.3390/children7070074. Children (Basel). 2020. PMID: 32645933 Free PMC article.
AIM: To assess whether regression toward the mean (RTM) has any role in explaining the diminished effects of parental education on the school performance of Black and Hispanic youth relative to non-Hispanic White youth. ...CONCLUSION: Diminished returns of parental …
AIM: To assess whether regression toward the mean (RTM) has any role in explaining the diminished effects of parental education on th …
Diminished Health Returns of Educational Attainment Among Immigrant Adults in the United States.
Assari S, Cobb S, Cuevas AG, Bazargan M. Assari S, et al. Front Psychiatry. 2020 Nov 27;11:535624. doi: 10.3389/fpsyt.2020.535624. eCollection 2020. Front Psychiatry. 2020. PMID: 33329080 Free PMC article.
Objectives: Marginalization-related diminished returns (MDRs) refer to weaker health effects of educational attainment for socially marginalized groups compared to the socially privileged groups. ...To prevent health disparities, it is essential to decompose health inequal …
Objectives: Marginalization-related diminished returns (MDRs) refer to weaker health effects of educational attainment for socially m …
Dimensional Change Card Sorting of American Children: Marginalization-Related Diminished Returns of Age.
Assari S. Assari S. Child Teenagers. 2020;3(2):72-92. doi: 10.22158/ct.v3n2p72. Epub 2020 Nov 23. Child Teenagers. 2020. PMID: 33299967 Free PMC article.
BACKGROUND: While age is associated with an increase in cognitive flexibility and executive functioning as a result of normal development during childhood, less is known about the effect of racial variation in children's age-related cognitive development. The Marginalization-rela …
BACKGROUND: While age is associated with an increase in cognitive flexibility and executive functioning as a result of normal development du …
Family Socioeconomic Status and Exposure to Childhood Trauma: Racial Differences.
Assari S. Assari S. Children (Basel). 2020 Jun 3;7(6):57. doi: 10.3390/children7060057. Children (Basel). 2020. PMID: 32503310 Free PMC article.
Our existing knowledge is minimal, however, about diminished returns of family SES on reducing exposure to childhood trauma. ...CONCLUSION: The protective effects of parental education and family income against exposure to childhood trauma are systematically diminished
Our existing knowledge is minimal, however, about diminished returns of family SES on reducing exposure to childhood trauma. ...CONCL …
Race, Education Attainment, and Happiness in the United States.
Assari S. Assari S. Int J Epidemiol Res. 2019 Spring;6(2):76-82. doi: 10.15171/ijer.2019.14. Int J Epidemiol Res. 2019. PMID: 31363495 Free PMC article.
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: As suggests by the Minorities' Diminished Returns (MDR) theory, education attainment and other socioeconomic status (SES) indicators have a smaller impact on the health and well-being of non-White than White Americans. ...Therefore, there is a ne …
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: As suggests by the Minorities' Diminished Returns (MDR) theory, education attainment and other socioeconom …
Second-Hand Smoke Exposure at Home in the United States; Minorities' Diminished Returns.
Assari S, Bazargan M. Assari S, et al. Int J Travel Med Glob Health. 2019 Fall;7(4):135-141. doi: 10.15171/IJTMGH.2019.28. Epub 2019 Nov 5. Int J Travel Med Glob Health. 2019. PMID: 32195278 Free PMC article.
INTRODUCTION: Educational attainment and poverty status are two strong socioeconomic status (SES) indicators that protect individuals against exposure to second-hand smoke. Minorities' Diminished Returns (MDRs), however, refer to smaller protective effects of SES indicator …
INTRODUCTION: Educational attainment and poverty status are two strong socioeconomic status (SES) indicators that protect individuals agains …
Social Determinants of Hookah Smoking in the United States.
Assari S, Chalian H, Bazargan M. Assari S, et al. J Ment Health Clin Psychol. 2020;4(1):21-27. doi: 10.29245/2578-2959/2020/1.1185. Epub 2020 Jan 17. J Ment Health Clin Psychol. 2020. PMID: 32285045 Free PMC article.
BACKGROUND: Educational attainment and income are two socioeconomic status indicators with strong protective effects against cigarette smoking. Marginalization-related Diminished Returns, however, refer to less than expected protective effects of socioeconomic status indic …
BACKGROUND: Educational attainment and income are two socioeconomic status indicators with strong protective effects against cigarette smoki …
Parental Educational Attainment and Academic Performance of American College Students; Blacks' Diminished Returns.
Assari S. Assari S. J Health Econ Dev. 2019 Spring;1(1):21-31. J Health Econ Dev. 2019. PMID: 31372601 Free PMC article.
BACKGROUND: As suggested by the Minorities' Diminished Returns (MDR) theory, socioeconomic status (SES) systemically results in smaller outcomes for non-Whites compared to Whites. We still know very little about diminished trans-generational returns of SES resources …
BACKGROUND: As suggested by the Minorities' Diminished Returns (MDR) theory, socioeconomic status (SES) systemically results in small …
Educational Attainment and Subjective Health and Well-Being; Diminished Returns of Lesbian, Gay, and Bisexual Individuals.
Assari S, Bazargan M. Assari S, et al. Behav Sci (Basel). 2019 Aug 22;9(9):90. doi: 10.3390/bs9090090. Behav Sci (Basel). 2019. PMID: 31443340 Free PMC article.
Background: Educational attainment is one of the strongest determinants of subjective health and well-being. Minorities' Diminished Returns, however, suggests that such an effect may be smaller for the members of racial/ethnic minorities such as Blacks and Hispanics relati …
Background: Educational attainment is one of the strongest determinants of subjective health and well-being. Minorities' Diminished R …
Parental Education, Household Income, Race, and Children's Working Memory: Complexity of the Effects.
Akhlaghipour G, Assari S. Akhlaghipour G, et al. Among authors: assari s. Brain Sci. 2020 Dec 7;10(12):950. doi: 10.3390/brainsci10120950. Brain Sci. 2020. PMID: 33297546 Free PMC article.
However, a growing literature shows that these effects may be complex: while the effects of parental education may be diminished for Blacks than Whites, household income may explain such effects. ...Considering race as sociological rather than a biological construct (race …
However, a growing literature shows that these effects may be complex: while the effects of parental education may be diminished for …
Income and Mental Well-Being of Middle-Aged and Older Americans: Immigrants' Diminished Returns.
Assari S. Assari S. Int J Travel Med Glob Health. 2020 Winter;8(1):37-43. doi: 10.34172/ijtmgh.2020.06. Int J Travel Med Glob Health. 2020. PMID: 32266301 Free PMC article.
INTRODUCTION: Although income is among the major social determinants of mental health of middle-aged and older individuals, socially marginalized groups gain less health from their income and other socioeconomic status (SES) resources compared to socially privileged groups. This …
INTRODUCTION: Although income is among the major social determinants of mental health of middle-aged and older individuals, socially margina …
Racial Difference in the Relationship Between Health and Happiness in the United States.
Cobb S, Javanbakht A, Khalifeh Soltani E, Bazargan M, Assari S. Cobb S, et al. Among authors: assari s. Psychol Res Behav Manag. 2020 May 25;13:481-490. doi: 10.2147/PRBM.S248633. eCollection 2020. Psychol Res Behav Manag. 2020. PMID: 32547270 Free PMC article.
BACKGROUND: Although health is a prerequisite for happiness, the salience of health for maintaining happiness may be diminished for Blacks when compared to Whites, a phenomenon which can be explained by the Black-White mental health paradox and minorities' diminished
BACKGROUND: Although health is a prerequisite for happiness, the salience of health for maintaining happiness may be diminished for B …
Parental Educational Attainment Differentially Boosts School Performance of American Adolescents: Minorities' Diminished Returns.
Assari S, Caldwell CH. Assari S, et al. J Family Reprod Health. 2019 Mar;13(1):7-13. J Family Reprod Health. 2019. PMID: 31850092 Free PMC article.
We still know very little about diminished trans-generational returns of SES resources such as parental educational attainment. ...As the underlying mechanisms are multifaceted, multi-level approach is needed to undo minorities' diminished returns, so every individu …
We still know very little about diminished trans-generational returns of SES resources such as parental educational attainment. ...As …
Educational Attainment and Self-Rated Oral Health among American Older Adults: Hispanics' Diminished Returns.
Assari S, Bazargan M. Assari S, et al. Dent J (Basel). 2019 Oct 1;7(4):97. doi: 10.3390/dj7040097. Dent J (Basel). 2019. PMID: 31581515 Free PMC article.
Background: Minorities' diminished returns (MDRs) refer to systemically weaker effects of socioeconomic status (SES), particularly educational attainment, on the health of non-Whites compared to Whites. ...
Background: Minorities' diminished returns (MDRs) refer to systemically weaker effects of socioeconomic status (SES), particularly ed …
Minorities' Diminished Returns of Educational Attainment on Hospitalization Risk: National Health Interview Survey (NHIS).
Assari S, Bazargan M. Assari S, et al. Hosp Pract Res. 2019 Summer;4(3):86-91. doi: 10.15171/HPR.2019.17. Epub 2019 Sep 18. Hosp Pract Res. 2019. PMID: 31650101 Free PMC article.
BACKGROUND: As suggested by the Minorities' Diminished Returns (MDRs) theory, educational attainment shows a weaker protective effect for racial and ethnic minority groups compared to non-Hispanic Whites. ...To prevent health disparities, there is a need to minimize dim
BACKGROUND: As suggested by the Minorities' Diminished Returns (MDRs) theory, educational attainment shows a weaker protective effect …
Educational Attainment Better Reduces Disability for Non-Hispanic than Hispanic Americans.
Assari S, Bazargan M. Assari S, et al. Eur J Investig Health Psychol Educ. 2020 Mar;10(1):10-17. doi: 10.3390/ejihpe10010002. Epub 2019 Jul 17. Eur J Investig Health Psychol Educ. 2020. PMID: 32089977 Free PMC article.
OBJECTIVES: Minorities' Diminished Returns (MDRs) refers to the weaker protective health effects of socioeconomic status (SES) for minorities, particularly educational attainment for racial and ethnic minorities, compared to the general population. ...
OBJECTIVES: Minorities' Diminished Returns (MDRs) refers to the weaker protective health effects of socioeconomic status (SES) for mi …
Parental Education on Youth Inhibitory Control in the Adolescent Brain Cognitive Development (ABCD) Study: Blacks' Diminished Returns.
Assari S. Assari S. Brain Sci. 2020 May 21;10(5):312. doi: 10.3390/brainsci10050312. Brain Sci. 2020. PMID: 32455841 Free PMC article.
Some of this racial gap is shown to be due to weaker effects of parental educational attainment on reducing the prevalence of behavioral risk factors such as impulsivity, substance use, aggression, obesity, and poor school performance for NHBs, a pattern called Minorities' Dim
Some of this racial gap is shown to be due to weaker effects of parental educational attainment on reducing the prevalence of behavioral ris …
Parent Education and Future Transition to Cigarette Smoking: Latinos' Diminished Returns.
Assari S, Boyce S, Caldwell CH, Bazargan M. Assari S, et al. Front Pediatr. 2020 Aug 19;8:457. doi: 10.3389/fped.2020.00457. eCollection 2020. Front Pediatr. 2020. PMID: 32974240 Free PMC article.
Background: High parent education is protective against youth health risk behaviors such as tobacco use. According to the Minorities' Diminished Returns theory, however, higher parent education seems to exert less protection for the ethnic minority relative to the majority …
Background: High parent education is protective against youth health risk behaviors such as tobacco use. According to the Minorities' Dim
Family Income and Gang Presence in the Neighborhood: Diminished Returns of Black Families.
Assari S, Boyce S, Caldwell CH, Bazargan M, Mincy R. Assari S, et al. Urban Sci. 2020 Jun;4(2):29. doi: 10.3390/urbansci4020029. Epub 2020 Jun 24. Urban Sci. 2020. PMID: 32671278 Free PMC article.
BACKGROUND: Based on the Minorities' Diminished Returns (MDRs) framework, indicators of high socioeconomic status, such as higher family income, show weaker protective effects on various developmental, behavioral, and health outcomes for Black than White families. ...The h …
BACKGROUND: Based on the Minorities' Diminished Returns (MDRs) framework, indicators of high socioeconomic status, such as higher fam …
Educational Attainment and Exercise Frequency in American Women; Blacks' Diminished Returns.
Assari S. Assari S. Womens Health Bull. 2019 Jul;6(3):e87413. doi: 10.5812/whb.87413. Epub 2019 Sep 4. Womens Health Bull. 2019. PMID: 31552286 Free PMC article.
BACKGROUND: Minorities' Diminished Returns (MDRs) refer to smaller protects health effects of socioeconomic status (SES) indicators for Blacks and other minority groups than Whites. ...
BACKGROUND: Minorities' Diminished Returns (MDRs) refer to smaller protects health effects of socioeconomic status (SES) indicators f …
Education Level and Cigarette Smoking: Diminished Returns of Lesbian, Gay and Bisexual Individuals.
Assari S, Bazargan M. Assari S, et al. Behav Sci (Basel). 2019 Sep 24;9(10):103. doi: 10.3390/bs9100103. Behav Sci (Basel). 2019. PMID: 31554198 Free PMC article.
Background: Education level is one of the strongest protective factors against high-risk behaviors such as cigarette smoking. Minorities' Diminished Returns (MDRs), however, suggest that the protective effects of education level tend to be weaker for racial and ethnic mino …
Background: Education level is one of the strongest protective factors against high-risk behaviors such as cigarette smoking. Minorities' …
Parental Educational Attainment and Black-White Adolescents' Achievement Gap: Blacks' Diminished Returns.
Assari S, Boyce S, Caldwell CH, Bazargan M. Assari S, et al. Open J Soc Sci. 2020 Mar;8(3):282-297. doi: 10.4236/jss.2020.83026. Open J Soc Sci. 2020. PMID: 32368561 Free PMC article.
Diminishing returns of parental educational attainment (MDRs) may be an unrecognized source of racial youth disparities. ...There is a need for public and economic policies that reduce diminished returns of SES for Black families....
Diminishing returns of parental educational attainment (MDRs) may be an unrecognized source of racial youth disparities. ...There is
Parental educational attainment and relatives' substance use of American youth: Hispanics Diminished Returns.
Assari S, Caldwell C, Bazargan M. Assari S, et al. J Biosci Med (Irvine). 2020 Feb;8(2):122-134. doi: 10.4236/jbm.2020.82010. Epub 2020 Feb 28. J Biosci Med (Irvine). 2020. PMID: 32123689 Free PMC article.
OBJECTIVES: Research on Minorities' Diminished Returns (MDRs) has shown higher than expected substance use (tobacco and alcohol use) in middle-class Hispanic and Black youth and adults. ...
OBJECTIVES: Research on Minorities' Diminished Returns (MDRs) has shown higher than expected substance use (tobacco and alcohol use) …
Mathematical Performance of American Youth: Diminished Returns of Educational Attainment of Asian-American Parents.
Assari S, Boyce S, Bazargan M, Caldwell CH. Assari S, et al. Educ Sci (Basel). 2020 Feb;10(2):32. Epub 2020 Feb 5. Educ Sci (Basel). 2020. PMID: 32201681 Free PMC article.
The Marginalization-related Diminished Returns (MDR) phenomenon refers to the weaker effects of parental educational attainment for marginalized groups, particularly ethnic minorities. ...While high parental educational attainment contributes to youth educational outcomes, …
The Marginalization-related Diminished Returns (MDR) phenomenon refers to the weaker effects of parental educational attainment for m …
Protective Effects of Parental Education Against Youth Cigarette Smoking: Diminished Returns of Blacks and Hispanics.
Assari S, Mistry R, Caldwell CH, Bazargan M. Assari S, et al. Adolesc Health Med Ther. 2020 May 22;11:63-71. doi: 10.2147/AHMT.S238441. eCollection 2020. Adolesc Health Med Ther. 2020. PMID: 32547284 Free PMC article.
BACKGROUND: High parental educational attainment is protective against youth health risk behaviors such as tobacco use. According to the Marginalization-related Diminished Returns (MDRs) theory, however, higher parental education is less protective for marginalized groups …
BACKGROUND: High parental educational attainment is protective against youth health risk behaviors such as tobacco use. According to the Mar …
Being Married Increases Life Expectancy of White but Not Black Americans.
Assari S, Bazargan M. Assari S, et al. J Family Reprod Health. 2019 Sep;13(3):132-140. J Family Reprod Health. 2019. PMID: 32201487 Free PMC article.
Objective: The positive effect of high socioeconomic position (SEP) on health is well established. According Minorities' Diminished Returns (MDRs) theory, however, the SEP-health link is smaller for Blacks compared to Whites. ...Conclusion: In line with the MDRs theory, th …
Objective: The positive effect of high socioeconomic position (SEP) on health is well established. According Minorities' Diminished R …
Maternal Education at Birth and Youth Breakfast Consumption at Age 15: Blacks' Diminished Returns.
Assari S, Boyce S, Bazargan M, Caldwell CH, Mincy R. Assari S, et al. J (Basel). 2020 Sep;3(3):313-323. doi: 10.3390/j3030024. Epub 2020 Sep 16. J (Basel). 2020. PMID: 33015572 Free PMC article.
BACKGROUND: Based on the Marginalization-related Diminished Returns (MDRs) framework, high socioeconomic status (SES) such as parental education shows weaker effects for Blacks than Whites. ...The health disparities are not only due to racial differences in SES but also th …
BACKGROUND: Based on the Marginalization-related Diminished Returns (MDRs) framework, high socioeconomic status (SES) such as parenta …
Family Socioeconomic Position at Birth and School Bonding at Age 15; Blacks' Diminished Returns.
Assari S. Assari S. Behav Sci (Basel). 2019 Mar 11;9(3):26. doi: 10.3390/bs9030026. Behav Sci (Basel). 2019. PMID: 30861987 Free PMC article.
Life course epidemiological studies have documented the effects of family socioeconomic position (SEP) at birth on youth developmental processes and outcomes decades later. According to the minorities' diminished returns (MDR) theory, however, family SEP at birth generates …
Life course epidemiological studies have documented the effects of family socioeconomic position (SEP) at birth on youth developmental proce …
African Americans' Diminished Returns of Parental Education on Adolescents' Depression and Suicide in the Adolescent Brain Cognitive Development (ABCD) Study.
Assari S, Boyce S, Bazargan M, Caldwell CH. Assari S, et al. Eur J Investig Health Psychol Educ. 2020 Jun;10(2):656-668. doi: 10.3390/ejihpe10020048. Epub 2020 Jun 16. Eur J Investig Health Psychol Educ. 2020. PMID: 32656052 Free PMC article.
Our existing knowledge is very limited regarding diminished returns of parental education and marital status on adolescents' depressed mood and suicidal attempts. ...The protective effects of parent education and marital status against depressed mood and suicidal attempts …
Our existing knowledge is very limited regarding diminished returns of parental education and marital status on adolescents' depresse …
Protective Effects of Maternal Education against Low Birth Weight Deliveries: Blacks' Diminished Returns.
Assari S. Assari S. Res Health Sci. 2020;5(4):1-17. doi: 10.22158/rhs.v5n4p1. Epub 2020 Sep 15. Res Health Sci. 2020. PMID: 33117952 Free PMC article.
At the same time, LBW increased the odds of chronic disease 15 years later. CONCLUSIONS: Diminished returns of maternal educational attainment contribute to racial disparities in LBW, which in turn contributes to future racial inequalities in chronic diseases in urban sett …
At the same time, LBW increased the odds of chronic disease 15 years later. CONCLUSIONS: Diminished returns of maternal educational a …
Minorities' Diminished Returns of Parental Educational Attainment on Adolescents' Social, Emotional, and Behavioral Problems.
Assari S, Boyce S, Caldwell CH, Bazargan M. Assari S, et al. Children (Basel). 2020 May 18;7(5):49. doi: 10.3390/children7050049. Children (Basel). 2020. PMID: 32443584 Free PMC article.
Conclusion: The protective effects of parental education against social, emotional, and behavioral problems are systematically diminished for Hispanic and Black than non-Hispanic White adolescents....
Conclusion: The protective effects of parental education against social, emotional, and behavioral problems are systematically diminished
Race, Ethnicity, Socioeconomic Status, and Chronic Lung Disease in the U.S.
Assari S, Chalian H, Bazargan M. Assari S, et al. Res Health Sci. 2020;5(1):48-63. doi: 10.22158/rhs.v5n1p48. Epub 2020 Feb 10. Res Health Sci. 2020. PMID: 32226910 Free PMC article.
BACKGROUND: Higher socioeconomic status (SES) indicators such as educational attainment and income reduce the risk of chronic lung diseases (CLDs) such as Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD), emphysema, chronic bronchitis, and asthma. Marginalization-related Diminishe
BACKGROUND: Higher socioeconomic status (SES) indicators such as educational attainment and income reduce the risk of chronic lung diseases …
Youth Social, Emotional, and Behavioral Problems in the ABCD Study: Minorities' Diminished Returns of Family Income.
Assari S. Assari S. J Econ Public Financ. 2020;6(4):1-19. doi: 10.22158/jepf.v6n4p1. Epub 2020 Oct 10. J Econ Public Financ. 2020. PMID: 33123624 Free PMC article.
Our existing knowledge is minimal about diminished returns of family income on parental reports of youth social, emotional, and behavioral outcomes. ...CONCLUSION: The protective effects of family income against behavioral problems are systematically diminished for …
Our existing knowledge is minimal about diminished returns of family income on parental reports of youth social, emotional, and behav …
Association Between Parental Educational Attainment and Youth Outcomes and Role of Race/Ethnicity.
Assari S, Caldwell CH, Bazargan M. Assari S, et al. JAMA Netw Open. 2019 Nov 1;2(11):e1916018. doi: 10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2019.16018. JAMA Netw Open. 2019. PMID: 31755951 Free PMC article.
IMPORTANCE: The concept of minorities' diminished returns refers to the smaller protective effects of educational attainment for racial and ethnic minority groups compared with those for majority groups. ...Given the systemic pattern for outcomes across domains, the dim
IMPORTANCE: The concept of minorities' diminished returns refers to the smaller protective effects of educational attainment for raci …
Reward Responsiveness in the Adolescent Brain Cognitive Development (ABCD) Study: African Americans' Diminished Returns of Parental Education.
Assari S, Boyce S, Akhlaghipour G, Bazargan M, Caldwell CH. Assari S, et al. Brain Sci. 2020 Jun 19;10(6):391. doi: 10.3390/brainsci10060391. Brain Sci. 2020. PMID: 32575523 Free PMC article.
It is still unknown if some of this racial and economic gap is attributed to weaker effects of parental education for African Americans, a pattern also called minorities' diminished returns (MDRs). (2) Aim: We compared non-Hispanic White and African American adolescents fo …
It is still unknown if some of this racial and economic gap is attributed to weaker effects of parental education for African Americans, a p …
Understanding America: Unequal Economic Returns of Years of Schooling in Whites and Blacks.
Assari S. Assari S. World J Educ Res. 2020;7(2):78-92. doi: 10.22158/wjer.v7n2p78. World J Educ Res. 2020. PMID: 32582861 Free PMC article.
BACKGROUND: Higher schooling is associated with higher economic wellbeing. Marginalization-related Diminished Returns (MDRs) framework, however, refers to smaller returns of schooling for non-Hispanic Blacks (NHBs) compared to non-Hispanic Whites (NHWs). ...
BACKGROUND: Higher schooling is associated with higher economic wellbeing. Marginalization-related Diminished Returns (MDRs) framewor …
Ethnicity, educational attainment, and physical health of older adults in the United States.
Assari S. Assari S. Aging Med (Milton). 2019 Jun;2(2):104-111. doi: 10.1002/agm2.12050. Epub 2019 Jan 25. Aging Med (Milton). 2019. PMID: 31608316 Free PMC article.
OBJECTIVE: Minorities' diminished returns theory suggests that socioeconomic status (SES) resources generate fewer health benefits for racial and ethnic minority groups, compared to the majority group. ...
OBJECTIVE: Minorities' diminished returns theory suggests that socioeconomic status (SES) resources generate fewer health benefits fo …
Unequal Associations between Educational Attainment and Occupational Stress across Racial and Ethnic Groups.
Assari S, Bazargan M. Assari S, et al. Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2019 Sep 21;16(19):3539. doi: 10.3390/ijerph16193539. Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2019. PMID: 31546681 Free PMC article.
BACKGROUND: Although other mechanisms are also involved, at least one reason high educational attainment (EA) is associated with better health is lower employment stress in individuals with high EA. Minorities' Diminished Returns, however, refer to the smaller protective h …
BACKGROUND: Although other mechanisms are also involved, at least one reason high educational attainment (EA) is associated with better heal …
Parental Educational Attainment and Chronic Medical Conditions among American Youth; Minorities' Diminished Returns.
Assari S, Bazargan M, Caldwell C. Assari S, et al. Children (Basel). 2019 Aug 26;6(9):96. doi: 10.3390/children6090096. Children (Basel). 2019. PMID: 31454956 Free PMC article.
BACKGROUND: Parental educational attainment is protective against chronic medical conditions (CMCs). According to the minorities' diminished returns (MDRs) theory, however, the health effects of socioeconomic status (SES) indicators are smaller for socially marginalized gr …
BACKGROUND: Parental educational attainment is protective against chronic medical conditions (CMCs). According to the minorities' diminis
Diminished Economic Return of Socioeconomic Status for Black Families.
Assari S. Assari S. Soc Sci (Basel). 2018 May;7(5):74. doi: 10.3390/socsci7050074. Epub 2018 May 2. Soc Sci (Basel). 2018. PMID: 32832108 Free PMC article.
BACKGROUND: According to the Minorities' Diminished Return theory, socioeconomic status (SES) systemically generates larger gains for Whites compared to Blacks. ...Policies should specifically address structural barriers in the lives of racial and ethnic minorities to mini …
BACKGROUND: According to the Minorities' Diminished Return theory, socioeconomic status (SES) systemically generates larger gains for …
Socioeconomic Status and Self-Rated Oral Health; Diminished Return among Hispanic Whites.
Assari S. Assari S. Dent J (Basel). 2018 Apr 24;6(2):11. doi: 10.3390/dj6020011. Dent J (Basel). 2018. PMID: 29695074 Free PMC article.
An extensive body of knowledge has documented weaker health effects of socio-economic status (SES) for Blacks compared to Whites, a phenomenon also known as Blacks’ diminished return. It is, however, unknown whether the same diminished return also holds fo …
An extensive body of knowledge has documented weaker health effects of socio-economic status (SES) for Blacks compared to Whites, a phenomen …
Unequal Gain of Equal Resources across Racial Groups.
Assari S. Assari S. Int J Health Policy Manag. 2018 Jan 1;7(1):1-9. doi: 10.15171/ijhpm.2017.90. Int J Health Policy Manag. 2018. PMID: 29325397 Free PMC article.
This article summarizes the results of a growing body of evidence documenting Blacks' diminished return, defined as a systematically smaller health gain from economic resources and psychological assets for Blacks in comparison to Whites. ...
This article summarizes the results of a growing body of evidence documenting Blacks' diminished return, defined as a systematically …
Unequal Effects of Educational Attainment on Workplace Exposure to Second-Hand Smoke by Race and Ethnicity; Minorities' Diminished Returns in the National Health Interview Survey (NHIS).
Assari S, Bazargan M. Assari S, et al. J Med Res Innov. 2019;3(2):e000179. doi: 10.32892/jmri.179. Epub 2019 Jul 24. J Med Res Innov. 2019. PMID: 31404444 Free PMC article.
BACKGROUND: One of the mechanisms by which high educational attainment promotes populations' health is through reducing exposure to environmental risk factors such as second-hand smoke. Minorities' Diminished Returns theory, however, posits that the protective effect of ed …
BACKGROUND: One of the mechanisms by which high educational attainment promotes populations' health is through reducing exposure to environm …
Unequal Protective Effects of Parental Educational Attainment on the Body Mass Index of Black and White Youth.
Assari S, Boyce S, Bazargan M, Mincy R, Caldwell CH. Assari S, et al. Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2019 Sep 27;16(19):3641. doi: 10.3390/ijerph16193641. Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2019. PMID: 31569829 Free PMC article.
BACKGROUND: Parental educational attainment is shown to be protective against health problems; the Minorities' Diminished Returns theory, however, posits that these protective effects tend to be smaller for socially marginalized groups particularly blacks than whites. ...E …
BACKGROUND: Parental educational attainment is shown to be protective against health problems; the Minorities' Diminished Returns the …
Race, Intergenerational Social Mobility and Stressful Life Events.
Assari S. Assari S. Behav Sci (Basel). 2018 Sep 20;8(10):86. doi: 10.3390/bs8100086. Behav Sci (Basel). 2018. PMID: 30241335 Free PMC article.
Socioeconomic status (SES) has smaller protective effects on the health of African Americans, and the differential association between social mobility and stress may explain the diminished returns of SES for African Americans. Aim. This study tested the race/ethnic differe …
Socioeconomic status (SES) has smaller protective effects on the health of African Americans, and the differential association between socia …
High sense of mastery reduces psychological distress for African American women but not African American men.
Assari S. Assari S. Arch Gen Intern Med. 2019;3(1):5-9. Arch Gen Intern Med. 2019. PMID: 31289793 Free PMC article.
., sense of mastery). However, less is known about how these diminished returns differ between AA men and women. This study tested whether AA men and women differ in the mental health effects of high sense of mastery. ...A smaller mental health gain of high sense of master …
., sense of mastery). However, less is known about how these diminished returns differ between AA men and women. This study tested wh …
Family Structure and Subsequent Anxiety Symptoms; Minorities' Diminished Return.
Assari S, Caldwell CH, Zimmerman MA. Assari S, et al. Brain Sci. 2018 May 31;8(6):97. doi: 10.3390/brainsci8060097. Brain Sci. 2018. PMID: 29857488 Free PMC article.
Background: Minorities' Diminished Return (MDR) theory suggests that socioeconomic position (SEP) may have a smaller effect on health and well-being of members of the minority than the majority groups. ...Conclusion: In support of the MDR theory, marital status of parents …
Background: Minorities' Diminished Return (MDR) theory suggests that socioeconomic position (SEP) may have a smaller effect on health …
Health Insurance Coverage Better Protects Blacks than Whites against Incident Chronic Disease.
Assari S, Helmi H, Bazargan M. Assari S, et al. Healthcare (Basel). 2019 Mar 10;7(1):40. doi: 10.3390/healthcare7010040. Healthcare (Basel). 2019. PMID: 30857371 Free PMC article.
Increasing Blacks' access to health insurance may be a solution to eliminate health disparities, given they are at a relative advantage for gaining health from insurance. These findings are discussed in the context of Blacks' diminished returns of socioeconomic resources. …
Increasing Blacks' access to health insurance may be a solution to eliminate health disparities, given they are at a relative advantage for …
Family Income at Birth and Risk of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder at Age 15: Racial Differences.
Assari S, Caldwell CH. Assari S, et al. Children (Basel). 2019 Jan 14;6(1):10. doi: 10.3390/children6010010. Children (Basel). 2019. PMID: 30646634 Free PMC article.
BACKGROUND: Socioeconomic status (SES) resources protect children and adults against the risk of medical and psychiatric conditions. According to the Minorities' Diminished Returns theory, however, such protective effects are systemically weaker for the members of racial a …
BACKGROUND: Socioeconomic status (SES) resources protect children and adults against the risk of medical and psychiatric conditions. Accordi …
Protective Effects of Educational Attainment Against Cigarette Smoking; Diminished Returns of American Indians and Alaska Natives in the National Health Interview Survey.
Assari S, Bazargan M. Assari S, et al. Int J Travel Med Glob Health. 2019 Summer;7(3):105-110. doi: 10.15171/IJTMGH.2019.22. Int J Travel Med Glob Health. 2019. PMID: 31772950 Free PMC article.
BACKGROUND: Although educational attainment is protective against health risk behaviors such as smoking, Minorities' Diminished Returns theory posits that these protective effects are smaller for ethnic minority than the majority groups. ...
BACKGROUND: Although educational attainment is protective against health risk behaviors such as smoking, Minorities' Diminished Retur …
Prostate Cancer Screening in Middle-Aged and Older American Men: Combined Effects of Ethnicity and Years of Schooling.
Assari S. Assari S. Hosp Pract Res. 2020 Spring;5(2):64-69. Epub 2020 Jun 11. Hosp Pract Res. 2020. PMID: 32783022 Free PMC article.
BACKGROUND: Prostate cancer screening is more commonly utilized by highly educated people. As shown by marginalization-related diminished returns (MDRs), the effects of socioeconomic status (SES) such as education on the health outcomes are considerably smaller for ethnic …
BACKGROUND: Prostate cancer screening is more commonly utilized by highly educated people. As shown by marginalization-related diminished
The Unequal Effect of Income on Risk of Overweight/Obesity of Whites and Blacks with Knee Osteoarthritis: the Osteoarthritis Initiative.
Assari S, Bazargan M, Chalian M. Assari S, et al. J Racial Ethn Health Disparities. 2020 Aug;7(4):776-784. doi: 10.1007/s40615-020-00719-5. Epub 2020 Feb 21. J Racial Ethn Health Disparities. 2020. PMID: 32086795
BACKGROUND: Although the protective effect of socioeconomic status (SES) against risk of overweight/obesity is well established, such effects may not be equal across diverse racial and ethnic groups, as suggested by the marginalization-related diminished returns (MDR) theo …
BACKGROUND: Although the protective effect of socioeconomic status (SES) against risk of overweight/obesity is well established, such effect …
Economic Strain Deteriorates While Education Fails to Protect Black Older Adults Against Depressive Symptoms, Pain, Self-rated Health, Chronic Disease, and Sick Days.
Assari S, Cobb S, Saqib M, Bazargan M. Assari S, et al. J Ment Health Clin Psychol. 2020;4(2):49-62. doi: 10.29245/2578-2959/2020/2.1203. Epub 2020 Jun 18. J Ment Health Clin Psychol. 2020. PMID: 32724902 Free PMC article.
BACKGROUND: A large body of empirical evidence on Minorities' Diminished Returns (MDRs) suggests that educational attainment shows smaller health effects for Blacks compared to Whites. ...
BACKGROUND: A large body of empirical evidence on Minorities' Diminished Returns (MDRs) suggests that educational attainment shows sm …
Substance Use among Economically Disadvantaged African American Older Adults; Objective and Subjective Socioeconomic Status.
Assari S, Smith J, Mistry R, Farokhnia M, Bazargan M. Assari S, et al. Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2019 May 23;16(10):1826. doi: 10.3390/ijerph16101826. Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2019. PMID: 31126049 Free PMC article.
Smoking and drinking may serve as coping mechanisms with financial difficulty, especially among African American older adults. In line with the minorities' diminished returns (MDR) theory, and probably due to discrimination against racial minorities, educational attainment …
Smoking and drinking may serve as coping mechanisms with financial difficulty, especially among African American older adults. In line with …
Prefrontal Cortex Response to Threat: Race by Age Variation in 9-10 Year Old Children.
Assari S, Akhlaghipour G, Saqib M, Boyce S, Bazargan M. Assari S, et al. J Ment Health Clin Psychol. 2020;4(4):1-12. doi: 10.29245/2578-2959/2020/4.1209. Epub 2020 Oct 12. J Ment Health Clin Psychol. 2020. PMID: 33241232 Free PMC article.
BACKGROUND: Considerable research has suggested that race and age are two major determinants of brain development, including but not limited to development of the prefrontal cortex (PFC). Minorities' Diminished Returns (MDRs), however, suggests that race (as a proxy of rac …
BACKGROUND: Considerable research has suggested that race and age are two major determinants of brain development, including but not limited …
Blacks' Diminished Return of Education Attainment on Subjective Health; Mediating Effect of Income.
Assari S. Assari S. Brain Sci. 2018 Sep 12;8(9):176. doi: 10.3390/brainsci8090176. Brain Sci. 2018. PMID: 30213135 Free PMC article.
Background: Minorities' Diminished Return (MDR) can be defined as smaller health gains from socioeconomic status (SES) indicators, such as education attainment among ethnic minorities compared to the majority group. ...
Background: Minorities' Diminished Return (MDR) can be defined as smaller health gains from socioeconomic status (SES) indicators, su …
High Education Level Protects European Americans but Not African Americans Against Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease: National Health Interview Survey.
Assari S, Chalian H, Bazargan M. Assari S, et al. Int J Biomed Eng Clin Sci. 2019 Jun;5(2):16-23. doi: 10.11648/j.ijbecs.20190502.12. Epub 2019 Sep 24. Int J Biomed Eng Clin Sci. 2019. PMID: 31633081 Free PMC article.
BACKGROUND: Education level reduces the risk of chronic diseases (CDs), including Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD). Minorities' Diminished Returns, however, refer to smaller health benefits of socioeconomic position (SEP) improvement for racial and ethnic minor …
BACKGROUND: Education level reduces the risk of chronic diseases (CDs), including Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD). Minorities' …
Family Socioeconomic Status at Birth and Youth Impulsivity at Age 15; Blacks' Diminished Return.
Assari S, Caldwell CH, Mincy R. Assari S, et al. Children (Basel). 2018 May 1;5(5):58. doi: 10.3390/children5050058. Children (Basel). 2018. PMID: 29724004 Free PMC article.
Minorities’ Diminished Return theory suggests that health effects of socioeconomic status (SES) are systemically smaller for racial and ethnic minorities compared to Whites. To test the relevance of Minorities’ Diminished Return theory for youth …
Minorities’ Diminished Return theory suggests that health effects of socioeconomic status (SES) are systemically smaller fo …
Combined Effects of Race and Educational Attainment on Physician Visits Over 24 Years in a National Sample of Middle-Aged and Older Americans.
Assari S. Assari S. Hosp Pract Res. 2020 Winter;5(1):17-23. doi: 10.34172/hpr.2020.04. Hosp Pract Res. 2020. PMID: 32457934 Free PMC article.
BACKGROUND: The literature on Minorities' Diminished Returns (MDRs) have shown worse than expected health of the members of racial and ethnic minority groups particularly Blacks. ...At least some of the racial health disparities is not due to low SES but diminished
BACKGROUND: The literature on Minorities' Diminished Returns (MDRs) have shown worse than expected health of the members of racial an …
Higher Educational Attainment is Associated with Lower Risk of a Future Suicide Attempt Among Non-Hispanic Whites but not Non-Hispanic Blacks.
Assari S, Schatten HT, Arias SA, Miller IW, Camargo CA, Boudreaux ED. Assari S, et al. J Racial Ethn Health Disparities. 2019 Oct;6(5):1001-1010. doi: 10.1007/s40615-019-00601-z. Epub 2019 Jul 5. J Racial Ethn Health Disparities. 2019. PMID: 31278625 Free PMC article.
In race/ethnicity-specific models, completing college was associated with decreased future suicide risk for non-Hispanic Whites but not Blacks. CONCLUSIONS: Consistent with the Minorities' Diminished Return theory, educational attainment better protected non-Hispanic White …
In race/ethnicity-specific models, completing college was associated with decreased future suicide risk for non-Hispanic Whites but not Blac …
Parental Educational Attainment and Mental Well-Being of College Students; Diminished Returns of Blacks.
Assari S. Assari S. Brain Sci. 2018 Oct 29;8(11):193. doi: 10.3390/brainsci8110193. Brain Sci. 2018. PMID: 30380617 Free PMC article.
BACKGROUND: According to the Minorities' Diminished Returns (MDR) theory, the health returns of socioeconomic status (SES) are systemically smaller for Blacks compared to Whites. Less is known, however, about trans-generational aspects of such diminished gains. For …
BACKGROUND: According to the Minorities' Diminished Returns (MDR) theory, the health returns of socioeconomic status (SES) are system …
Income and Self-Rated Mental Health: Diminished Returns for High Income Black Americans.
Assari S, Lapeyrouse LM, Neighbors HW. Assari S, et al. Behav Sci (Basel). 2018 May 17;8(5):50. doi: 10.3390/bs8050050. Behav Sci (Basel). 2018. PMID: 29772799 Free PMC article.
Background: The minorities' diminished return theory suggests that socioeconomic position (SEP) generates smaller health gains for racial/ethnic minorities compared to Whites. ...In race/ethnicity-stratified models, higher household income was associated with better SRMH f …
Background: The minorities' diminished return theory suggests that socioeconomic position (SEP) generates smaller health gains for ra …
Combined Effects of Ethnicity and Education on Burden of Depressive Symptoms over 24 Years in Middle-Aged and Older Adults in the United States.
Assari S. Assari S. Brain Sci. 2020 Apr 2;10(4):209. doi: 10.3390/brainsci10040209. Brain Sci. 2020. PMID: 32252391 Free PMC article.
While high education credentials protect individuals against depressive symptoms, this protection may be weaker for ethnic minority groups such as Hispanic Whites compared to the majority group (non-Hispanic Whites). Built on marginalization-related diminished returns (MDR …
While high education credentials protect individuals against depressive symptoms, this protection may be weaker for ethnic minority groups s …
Parental Education Attainment and Educational Upward Mobility; Role of Race and Gender.
Assari S. Assari S. Behav Sci (Basel). 2018 Nov 21;8(11):107. doi: 10.3390/bs8110107. Behav Sci (Basel). 2018. PMID: 30469353 Free PMC article.
Background. The Minorities' Diminished Return theory suggests that education attainment and other socioeconomic resources have smaller effects on the health and well-being of African Americans and other racial and ethnic minorities compared to Whites. Racial and ethnic dif …
Background. The Minorities' Diminished Return theory suggests that education attainment and other socioeconomic resources have smalle …
Educational Attainment Promotes Fruit and Vegetable Intake for Whites but Not Blacks.
Assari S, Lankarani MM. Assari S, et al. J (Basel). 2018 Dec;1(1):29-41. doi: 10.3390/j1010005. Epub 2018 Jun 3. J (Basel). 2018. PMID: 31844842 Free PMC article.
BACKGROUND: Although the protective effects of socioeconomic status (SES) on health behaviors are well-known, according to the minorities' diminished return theory, the health return of SES, particularly educational attainment, is systemically smaller for minorities than W …
BACKGROUND: Although the protective effects of socioeconomic status (SES) on health behaviors are well-known, according to the minorities' …
High Income Protects Whites but Not African Americans against Risk of Depression.
Assari S. Assari S. Healthcare (Basel). 2018 Apr 23;6(2):37. doi: 10.3390/healthcare6020037. Healthcare (Basel). 2018. PMID: 29690595 Free PMC article.
Background: Built on the Blacks’ diminished return theory, defined as smaller effects of socioeconomic status (SES) on a wide range of health outcomes for African Americans compared to Whites, the current study compared African Americans and Whites for the associ …
Background: Built on the Blacks’ diminished return theory, defined as smaller effects of socioeconomic status (SES) on a wi …
Educational Attainment Better Increases the Chance of Breast Physical Exam for Non-Hispanic Than Hispanic American Women: National Health Interview Survey.
Assari S, Bazargan M. Assari S, et al. Hosp Pract Res. 2019 Fall;4(4):122-127. doi: 10.15171/HPR.2019.25. Hosp Pract Res. 2019. PMID: 32190811 Free PMC article.
BACKGROUND: The Minorities' Diminished Returns (MDRs) theory suggests that the health effect of educational attainment is considerably smaller for members of racial and ethnic minority groups than for Whites. ...
BACKGROUND: The Minorities' Diminished Returns (MDRs) theory suggests that the health effect of educational attainment is considerabl …
Family Income Reduces Risk of Obesity for White but Not Black Children.
Assari S. Assari S. Children (Basel). 2018 Jun 10;5(6):73. doi: 10.3390/children5060073. Children (Basel). 2018. PMID: 29890778 Free PMC article.
Policies should go beyond access to SES and address structural barriers in the lives of Blacks which result in a diminished health return of very same SES resources for them. As the likely causes are multi-level barriers, multi-level interventions are needed to eliminate r …
Policies should go beyond access to SES and address structural barriers in the lives of Blacks which result in a diminished health re …
Poverty Status and Childhood Asthma in White and Black Families: National Survey of Children's Health.
Assari S, Moghani Lankarani M. Assari S, et al. Healthcare (Basel). 2018 Jun 12;6(2):62. doi: 10.3390/healthcare6020062. Healthcare (Basel). 2018. PMID: 29895767 Free PMC article.
Background: Living above the poverty line reduces the risk of physical illnesses, including childhood asthma (CA). Minorities’ Diminished Return theory, however, suggests that the protective effects of socioeconomic status (SES) on health are weaker for racial mi …
Background: Living above the poverty line reduces the risk of physical illnesses, including childhood asthma (CA). Minorities’ …
Educational Attainment and Smoking Status in a National Sample of American Adults; Evidence for the Blacks' Diminished Return.
Assari S, Mistry R. Assari S, et al. Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2018 Apr 16;15(4):763. doi: 10.3390/ijerph15040763. Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2018. PMID: 29659482 Free PMC article.
BACKGROUND: Although higher socioeconomic status (SES) indicators such as educational attainment are linked with health behaviors, the Blacks’ Diminished Return theory posits that the protective effects of SES are systemically smaller for Blacks than Whites. ...
BACKGROUND: Although higher socioeconomic status (SES) indicators such as educational attainment are linked with health behaviors, the Black …
The Benefits of Higher Income in Protecting against Chronic Medical Conditions Are Smaller for African Americans than Whites.
Assari S. Assari S. Healthcare (Basel). 2018 Jan 9;6(1):2. doi: 10.3390/healthcare6010002. Healthcare (Basel). 2018. PMID: 29315227 Free PMC article.
Background: Blacks' diminished return is defined as smaller protective effects of socioeconomic status (SES) on health of African Americans compared to Whites. ...More research is needed on the role of diminished health return of SES resources among other minority g …
Background: Blacks' diminished return is defined as smaller protective effects of socioeconomic status (SES) on health of African Ame …
Education and Income Predict Future Emotional Well-Being of Whites but Not Blacks: A Ten-Year Cohort.
Assari S, Preiser B, Kelly M. Assari S, et al. Brain Sci. 2018 Jun 29;8(7):122. doi: 10.3390/brainsci8070122. Brain Sci. 2018. PMID: 29966278 Free PMC article.
BACKGROUND: The Minorities’ Diminished Return (MDR) theory is defined as systematically smaller effects of socioeconomic status (SES) on the health and well-being of minority groups when compared to Whites. ...
BACKGROUND: The Minorities’ Diminished Return (MDR) theory is defined as systematically smaller effects of socioeconomic st …
Parental Educational Attainment, the Superior Temporal Cortical Surface Area, and Reading Ability among American Children: A Test of Marginalization-Related Diminished Returns.
Assari S, Boyce S, Bazargan M, Thomas A, Cobb RJ, Hudson D, Curry TJ, Nicholson HL Jr, Cuevas AG, Mistry R, Chavous TM, Caldwell CH, Zimmerman MA. Assari S, et al. Children (Basel). 2021 May 18;8(5):412. doi: 10.3390/children8050412. Children (Basel). 2021. PMID: 34070118 Free PMC article.
BACKGROUND: Recent studies have shown that parental educational attainment is associated with a larger superior temporal cortical surface area associated with higher reading ability in children. Simultaneously, the marginalization-related diminished returns (MDRs) framewor …
BACKGROUND: Recent studies have shown that parental educational attainment is associated with a larger superior temporal cortical surface ar …
Workplace Racial Composition Explains High Perceived Discrimination of High Socioeconomic Status African American Men.
Assari S, Moghani Lankarani M. Assari S, et al. Brain Sci. 2018 Jul 27;8(8):139. doi: 10.3390/brainsci8080139. Brain Sci. 2018. PMID: 30060492 Free PMC article.
Recent research, however, has shown that African Americans gain less from their SES and African Americans of high SES, particularly males, may be vulnerable to perceived discrimination, as explained by the Minorities' Diminished Returns theory. One potential mechanism for …
Recent research, however, has shown that African Americans gain less from their SES and African Americans of high SES, particularly males, m …
Blacks' Diminished Health Return of Family Structure and Socioeconomic Status; 15 Years of Follow-up of a National Urban Sample of Youth.
Assari S, Thomas A, Caldwell CH, Mincy RB. Assari S, et al. J Urban Health. 2018 Feb;95(1):21-35. doi: 10.1007/s11524-017-0217-3. J Urban Health. 2018. PMID: 29230628 Free PMC article.
There are reports, however, documenting a smaller return of SES among Blacks compared to Whites, also known as Blacks' diminished return. Using a national sample, this study investigated race by gender differences in the effects of family structure and family SES on subseq …
There are reports, however, documenting a smaller return of SES among Blacks compared to Whites, also known as Blacks' diminished ret …
Educational Attainment Better Protects African American Women than African American Men Against Depressive Symptoms and Psychological Distress.
Assari S. Assari S. Brain Sci. 2018 Sep 30;8(10):182. doi: 10.3390/brainsci8100182. Brain Sci. 2018. PMID: 30274391 Free PMC article.
BACKGROUND: Recent research has shown smaller health effects of socioeconomic status (SES) indicators such as education attainment for African Americans as compared to whites. However, less is known about diminished returns based on gender within African Americans. AIM: To …
BACKGROUND: Recent research has shown smaller health effects of socioeconomic status (SES) indicators such as education attainment for Afric …
Race and Urbanity Alter the Protective Effect of Education but not Income on Mortality.
Assari S, Lankarani MM. Assari S, et al. Front Public Health. 2016 May 20;4:100. doi: 10.3389/fpubh.2016.00100. eCollection 2016. Front Public Health. 2016. PMID: 27242992 Free PMC article.
Differential effect of education on employment and health care may explain the different protective effect of education based on race and place. Findings support the "diminishing returns" hypothesis for Blacks....
Differential effect of education on employment and health care may explain the different protective effect of education based on race and pl …
Black-White Achievement Gap: Role of Race, School Urbanity, and Parental Education.
Assari S, Mardani A, Maleki M, Boyce S, Bazargan M. Assari S, et al. Pediatric Health Med Ther. 2021 Jan 6;12:1-11. doi: 10.2147/PHMT.S238877. eCollection 2021. Pediatric Health Med Ther. 2021. PMID: 33442317 Free PMC article.
BACKGROUND: Recent research on Marginalization-related Diminished Returns (MDRs) has documented weaker boosting effects of parental educational attainment on educational outcomes of Black than White students. ...Given that Blacks are more likely than Whites to attend urban …
BACKGROUND: Recent research on Marginalization-related Diminished Returns (MDRs) has documented weaker boosting effects of parental e …
Resting-State Functional Connectivity between Putamen and Salience Network and Childhood Body Mass Index.
Assari S, Boyce S. Assari S, et al. Neurol Int. 2021 Mar 4;13(1):85-101. doi: 10.3390/neurolint13010009. Neurol Int. 2021. PMID: 33806587 Free PMC article.
INTRODUCTION: Although the putamen has a significant role in reward-seeking and motivated behaviors, including eating and food-seeking, minorities' diminished returns (MDRs) suggest that individual-level risk and protective factors have weaker effects for Non-Hispanic Blac …
INTRODUCTION: Although the putamen has a significant role in reward-seeking and motivated behaviors, including eating and food-seeking, mino …
Life Expectancy Gain Due to Employment Status Depends on Race, Gender, Education, and Their Intersections.
Assari S. Assari S. J Racial Ethn Health Disparities. 2018 Apr;5(2):375-386. doi: 10.1007/s40615-017-0381-x. Epub 2017 Jun 20. J Racial Ethn Health Disparities. 2018. PMID: 28634876 Free PMC article.
In the pooled sample, baseline employment interacted with race (HR = .69, 95% CI = .49-.96), gender (HR = .73, 95% CI = .53-1.01), and education (HR = .64, 95% CI = .46-.88) on mortality, suggesting diminished protective effects for Blacks, women, and individuals with lowe …
In the pooled sample, baseline employment interacted with race (HR = .69, 95% CI = .49-.96), gender (HR = .73, 95% CI = .53-1.01), and educa …
Race, Socioeconomic Status, and Cerebellum Cortex Fractional Anisotropy in Pre-Adolescents.
Assari S, Boyce S. Assari S, et al. Adolescents. 2021 Jun;1(2):70-94. doi: 10.3390/adolescents1020007. Epub 2021 Mar 31. Adolescents. 2021. PMID: 34095893 Free PMC article.
CONCLUSIONS: The effects of SES indicators, namely parental education and household income, on pre-adolescents' cerebellum cortex microstructure and integrity are weaker in Black than in White families. This finding is in line with the Marginalization-related Diminished Re …
CONCLUSIONS: The effects of SES indicators, namely parental education and household income, on pre-adolescents' cerebellum cortex microstruc …