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Introduction to propensity scores.
Williamson EJ, Forbes A. Williamson EJ, et al. Respirology. 2014 Jul;19(5):625-35. doi: 10.1111/resp.12312. Epub 2014 May 29. Respirology. 2014. PMID: 24889820 Review.
Although randomization provides a gold-standard method of assessing causal relationships, it is not always possible to randomly allocate exposures. ...An alternative approach--propensity scoring--instead fits a regression model to the exposure variable. For a
Although randomization provides a gold-standard method of assessing causal relationships, it is not always possible to randomly alloc …
Tobacco smoking and alcohol consumption as risk factors for glioma: a case-control study in Melbourne, Australia.
Hurley SF, McNeil JJ, Donnan GA, Forbes A, Salzberg M, Giles GG. Hurley SF, et al. J Epidemiol Community Health. 1996 Aug;50(4):442-6. doi: 10.1136/jech.50.4.442. J Epidemiol Community Health. 1996. PMID: 8882229 Free PMC article.
DESIGN: This was a population based, case-control study. Relative risks (RR) were estimated using logistic regression analysis. ...The pattern of risk associated with tobacco smoking in men appears inconsistent with a causal role, and may be due to chance, response …
DESIGN: This was a population based, case-control study. Relative risks (RR) were estimated using logistic regression analysis. ...Th …
Doubly robust estimators of causal exposure effects with missing data in the outcome, exposure or a confounder.
Williamson EJ, Forbes A, Wolfe R. Williamson EJ, et al. Stat Med. 2012 Dec 30;31(30):4382-400. doi: 10.1002/sim.5643. Epub 2012 Oct 22. Stat Med. 2012. PMID: 23086504
We consider the estimation of the causal effect of a binary exposure on a continuous outcome. Confounding and missing data are both likely to occur in practice when observational data are used to estimate this causal effect. ...When a confounder is missing, e …
We consider the estimation of the causal effect of a binary exposure on a continuous outcome. Confounding and missing data are …
Intraoperative dexamethasone does not increase the risk of postoperative wound infection: a propensity score-matched post hoc analysis of the ENIGMA-II trial (EnDEX).
Corcoran T, Kasza J, Short TG, O'Loughlin E, Chan MT, Leslie K, Forbes A, Paech M, Myles P; ENIGMA-II investigators. Corcoran T, et al. Br J Anaesth. 2017 Feb;118(2):190-199. doi: 10.1093/bja/aew446. Br J Anaesth. 2017. PMID: 28100522 Clinical Trial.
BACKGROUND: In a post hoc analysis of the ENIGMA-II trial, we sought to determine whether intraoperative dexamethasone was associated with adverse safety outcomes. ...Dexamethasone administration was associated with a decrease in fever on days 1-3 [182 (8.4%) vs 488 …
BACKGROUND: In a post hoc analysis of the ENIGMA-II trial, we sought to determine whether intraoperative dexamethasone was associated …
Introduction to causal diagrams for confounder selection.
Williamson EJ, Aitken Z, Lawrie J, Dharmage SC, Burgess JA, Forbes AB. Williamson EJ, et al. Respirology. 2014 Apr;19(3):303-11. doi: 10.1111/resp.12238. Epub 2014 Jan 22. Respirology. 2014. PMID: 24447391 Review.
A causal diagram is a visual representation of the causal relationships believed to exist between the variables of interest, including the exposure, outcome and potential confounding variables. ...This approach is illustrated by constructing a causal diagram
A causal diagram is a visual representation of the causal relationships believed to exist between the variables of interest, i
Correcting for the bias caused by exposure measurement error in epidemiological studies.
Fahey MT, Forbes AB, Hodge AM. Fahey MT, et al. Respirology. 2014 Oct;19(7):979-84. doi: 10.1111/resp.12356. Epub 2014 Aug 14. Respirology. 2014. PMID: 25123473 Review.
We show how a simple hand calculation, in conjunction with validation study data and a calibration equation, can be used to correct estimates for the bias caused by exposure measurement error. ...
We show how a simple hand calculation, in conjunction with validation study data and a calibration equation, can be used to co …
Power and sample size requirements for GEE analyses of cluster randomized crossover trials.
Li F, Forbes AB, Turner EL, Preisser JS. Li F, et al. Stat Med. 2019 Feb 20;38(4):636-649. doi: 10.1002/sim.7995. Epub 2018 Oct 8. Stat Med. 2019. PMID: 30298551 Free PMC article.
The cluster randomized crossover design has been proposed to improve efficiency over the traditional parallel cluster randomized design, which often involves a limited number of clusters. ...In this paper, we consider the two-treatment two-period crossover design, and deve …
The cluster randomized crossover design has been proposed to improve efficiency over the traditional parallel cluster randomized design, whi …
Confounder-adjusted estimates of the risk difference using propensity score-based weighting.
Ukoumunne OC, Williamson E, Forbes AB, Gulliford MC, Carlin JB. Ukoumunne OC, et al. Stat Med. 2010 Dec 30;29(30):3126-36. doi: 10.1002/sim.3935. Stat Med. 2010. PMID: 21170907
Estimates can be obtained from a propensity score-based method using inverse probability-of-exposure weights to balance groups defined by exposure status with respect to confounders. ...The simulation model incorporated a binary confounder and a normally dist …
Estimates can be obtained from a propensity score-based method using inverse probability-of-exposure weights to balance groups define …
A Telephone Support Program to Reduce Costs and Hospital Admissions for Patients at Risk of Readmissions: Lessons from an Evaluation of a Complex Health Intervention.
Morello RT, Barker AL, Watts JJ, Bohensky MA, Forbes AB, Stoelwinder J. Morello RT, et al. Popul Health Manag. 2016 Jun;19(3):187-95. doi: 10.1089/pop.2015.0042. Epub 2015 Aug 3. Popul Health Manag. 2016. PMID: 26237303
This study aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of a telephone health coaching and support service provided to members of an Australian private health insurance fund-Telephonic Complex Care Program (TCCP)-on hospital use and associated costs. A case-control pre-post …
This study aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of a telephone health coaching and support service provided to members of an Australia …
Repair of Partly Misspecified Causal Diagrams.
Oates CJ, Kasza J, Simpson JA, Forbes AB. Oates CJ, et al. Epidemiology. 2017 Jul;28(4):548-552. doi: 10.1097/EDE.0000000000000659. Epidemiology. 2017. PMID: 28346270 Review.
In this report, a novel method is presented that repairs a misspecified causal diagram through the addition of edges. These edges are determined using a data-driven approach designed to provide improved statistical efficiency relative to de novo structure lea …
In this report, a novel method is presented that repairs a misspecified causal diagram through the addition of edges. These ed …
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