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Table representation of search results timeline featuring number of search results per year.

Year Number of Results
1953 1
1964 1
1965 1
1966 1
1968 1
1973 2
1974 2
1975 8
1976 3
1977 3
1978 1
1979 2
1980 2
1981 6
1982 4
1983 3
1984 6
1985 5
1986 4
1987 9
1988 12
1989 8
1990 15
1991 10
1992 17
1993 25
1994 21
1995 23
1996 23
1997 34
1998 23
1999 33
2000 40
2001 40
2002 45
2003 49
2004 57
2005 72
2006 78
2007 90
2008 115
2009 115
2010 119
2011 143
2012 142
2013 197
2014 214
2015 224
2016 254
2017 260
2018 288
2019 306
2020 304
2021 192
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3,207 results
Results by year
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Page 1
Selection bias and information bias in clinical research.
Tripepi G, Jager KJ, Dekker FW, Zoccali C. Tripepi G, et al. Nephron Clin Pract. 2010;115(2):c94-9. doi: 10.1159/000312871. Epub 2010 Apr 21. Nephron Clin Pract. 2010. PMID: 20407272 Free article. Review.
On the other hand, systematic error or bias reflects a problem of validity of the study and arises because of any error resulting from methods used by the investigator when recruiting individuals for the study, from factors affecting the study participation (selection bias) or fr …
On the other hand, systematic error or bias reflects a problem of validity of the study and arises because of any error resulting from metho …
Bias, Confounding, and Interaction: Lions and Tigers, and Bears, Oh My!
Vetter TR, Mascha EJ. Vetter TR, et al. Anesth Analg. 2017 Sep;125(3):1042-1048. doi: 10.1213/ANE.0000000000002332. Anesth Analg. 2017. PMID: 28817531 Review.
Clinical researchers likewise seek to make a valid inference about the association between an intervention and outcome(s) in a specific population, based upon their randomly collected, representative sample data. ...The most commonly encountered types of bias in anesthesia …
Clinical researchers likewise seek to make a valid inference about the association between an intervention and outcome(s) in a specif …
Bias and causal associations in observational research.
Grimes DA, Schulz KF. Grimes DA, et al. Lancet. 2002 Jan 19;359(9302):248-52. doi: 10.1016/S0140-6736(02)07451-2. Lancet. 2002. PMID: 11812579
Internal validity means that the study measured what it set out to; external validity is the ability to generalise from the study to the reader's patients. With respect to internal validity, selection bias, information bias, and confounding are present to some degre …
Internal validity means that the study measured what it set out to; external validity is the ability to generalise from the study to the rea …
A structural approach to selection bias.
Hernán MA, Hernández-Díaz S, Robins JM. Hernán MA, et al. Epidemiology. 2004 Sep;15(5):615-25. doi: 10.1097/01.ede.0000135174.63482.43. Epidemiology. 2004. PMID: 15308962
We describe examples of selection bias in case-control studies (eg, inappropriate selection of controls) and cohort studies (eg, informative censoring). We argue that the causal structure underlying the bias in each example is essentially the same: conditioning on a common …
We describe examples of selection bias in case-control studies (eg, inappropriate selection of controls) and cohort studies (eg, informat
Assessing bias in studies of prognostic factors.
Hayden JA, van der Windt DA, Cartwright JL, Côté P, Bombardier C. Hayden JA, et al. Ann Intern Med. 2013 Feb 19;158(4):280-6. doi: 10.7326/0003-4819-158-4-201302190-00009. Ann Intern Med. 2013. PMID: 23420236
This article describes the Quality In Prognosis Studies tool, which includes questions related to these areas that can inform judgments of risk of bias in prognostic research.A working group comprising epidemiologists, statisticians, and clinicians developed the tool as th …
This article describes the Quality In Prognosis Studies tool, which includes questions related to these areas that can inform judgmen …
Bias, discrimination, and obesity.
Puhl R, Brownell KD. Puhl R, et al. Obes Res. 2001 Dec;9(12):788-805. doi: 10.1038/oby.2001.108. Obes Res. 2001. PMID: 11743063 Free article. Review.
This article reviews information on discriminatory attitudes and behaviors against obese individuals, integrates this to show whether systematic discrimination occurs and why, and discusses needed work in the field. ...
This article reviews information on discriminatory attitudes and behaviors against obese individuals, integrates this to show whether …
[Information bias].
Kamper-Jørgensen M. Kamper-Jørgensen M. Ugeskr Laeger. 2014 Feb 10;176(7A):V08130488. Ugeskr Laeger. 2014. PMID: 25347562 Review. Danish.
Much evidence guiding clinical decisions and preventive initiatives is derived from epidemiologic studies. Results of such studies may be influenced by incorrect information about participants. This article introduces the reader to information bias and discusses the …
Much evidence guiding clinical decisions and preventive initiatives is derived from epidemiologic studies. Results of such studies may be in …
Cognitive Bias: The Downside of Shared Decision Making.
Ozdemir S, Finkelstein EA. Ozdemir S, et al. JCO Clin Cancer Inform. 2018 Dec;2:1-10. doi: 10.1200/CCI.18.00011. JCO Clin Cancer Inform. 2018. PMID: 30652609 Free article. Review.
We present an overview of common cognitive biases that result from how and when information is presented to patients. We supplement these descriptions with cancer-specific examples or those from other health fields if no cancer-specific examples are available. ...
We present an overview of common cognitive biases that result from how and when information is presented to patients. We supplement t …
Bias in Prospective Research and How to Avoid it.
Stenson JF, Kepler CK. Stenson JF, et al. Clin Spine Surg. 2019 Jul;32(6):254-255. doi: 10.1097/BSD.0000000000000767. Clin Spine Surg. 2019. PMID: 30614841
Broadly speaking, bias is categorized into 3 categories: selection bias, information bias, and confounding bias. Furthermore, misinterpretation of presented statistics in research studies causes acceptance of conclusions which may not necessarily be true. ...
Broadly speaking, bias is categorized into 3 categories: selection bias, information bias, and confounding bias. Furthermore, misinte …
Accrual, Publication Bias, and the Coronavirus in 2020.
Bates SE. Bates SE. Oncologist. 2020 Jul;25(7):e1001-e1002. doi: 10.1634/theoncologist.2020-0455. Epub 2020 May 29. Oncologist. 2020. PMID: 32462787 Free PMC article.
As The Oncologist celebrates its 25th Anniversary, we focus not only on the ethical and moral imperatives behind CTR, but also on the practical goal of informing the practice of treating physicians....
As The Oncologist celebrates its 25th Anniversary, we focus not only on the ethical and moral imperatives behind CTR, but also on the practi …
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