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. 2021 Oct;27(7):750-754.
doi: 10.1016/j.fas.2020.09.011. Epub 2020 Sep 29.

Podoscopic classification of second toe deformities

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Podoscopic classification of second toe deformities

Alessio Bernasconi et al. Foot Ankle Surg. 2021 Oct.

Abstract

Background: The AFCP (French Association of Foot Surgery) classification was recently introduced as a reliable and quick visual method for the assessment of sagittal plane deformities of the second toe. The aim of this study was four-fold: (1) to describe a new toe-ground area score (TAS) as an additional dynamic tool of such classification, (2) to verify whether all second toe deformities could be classified, (3) to assess the TAS intra- and inter-observer reliability and (4) to evaluate the TAS learning curve.

Methods: In this retrospective study 52 s toes were evaluated using a podoscope. Ten foot and ankle surgeons assessed independently standardised videos of each case acquired in a blinded fashion. Assessment was repeated three times, 15 days apart. Intra- (Intraclass Correlation Coefficient or ICC) and inter-observer reliability (Fleiss' Kappa coefficient) were calculated. Mean time to assess a deformity was also recorded.

Results: All the 522 observations (52 feet assessed by 10 surgeons) were successfully rated using the TAS. Intra- and inter-observer reliability were substantial for the first round (ICC: 0.79; Kappa: 0.76) and excellent for the second (ICC: 0.88; Kappa: 0.8) and third round (ICC: 0.84; Kappa: 0.81). Mean assessment time ± standard deviation was 22 ± 11 s per case for the last two rounds.

Conclusions: The TAS has been proven reliable and quick in the assessment of second toe deformities. When combined with a static segmentary classification of the toe (such as the AFCP classification) it might provide further dynamic informations about the ability of the toe to engage the ground.

Level of evidence: Level IV, retrospective cohort study.

Keywords: Area score; Claw toe; French Association of Foot Surgery; Hammer toe; Lesser toes.

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. 2020 Aug;26(6):650-656.
doi: 10.1016/j.fas.2019.08.011. Epub 2019 Aug 29.

Intra- and inter-observer reliability of the AFCP classification for sagittal plane deformities of the second toe

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Intra- and inter-observer reliability of the AFCP classification for sagittal plane deformities of the second toe

François Lintz et al. Foot Ankle Surg. 2020 Aug.

Abstract

Background: The French Association of Foot Surgery (AFCP) recently proposed a morphological classification of lesser toe deformities, describing the position of each joint (metatarsophalangeal or MTP, proximal interphalangeal or PIP and distal interphalangeal or DIP) in relation to their anatomic position in the sagittal plane. A study was designed to test its reliability for assessment of sagittal plane deformities of the second toe.

Methods: In this retrospective study 55 toes (55 feet, 50 patients) were evaluated. Eleven foot and ankle surgeons assessed independently standardized photographs of each case acquired in a blinded fashion. Assessment was repeated three times, each 15 days apart. Intra- (Intraclass Correlation Coefficient or ICC) and inter-observer reliability (Fleiss' Kappa coefficient) were calculated for each joint.

Results: Intra- and inter-observer reliability were moderate for the MTP joint (ICC range, 0.54-0.61) (Kappa range, 0.53-0.61) and substantial for the PIP (ICC range, 0.60-0.71) (Kappa range, 0.68-0.75) and DIP joints (ICC range, 0.69-0.78) (Kappa range, 0.74-0.78). Mean assessment time±standard deviation was 35±10s per case.

Conclusions: The AFCP classification proved itself reliable in the assessment of sagittal plane defomities of the second toe among eleven foot and ankle surgeons. It is based only on a visual description of the deformity, and does not provide informations on either the clinical reducibility of the deformity and the radiographic joint status.

Level of evidence: Level IV, retrospective cohort study.

Keywords: Claw toe; Distal interphalangeal joint; Hammer toe; Lesser toes; Metatarsophalangeal joint; Proximal interphalangeal joint; Toe deformity.

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