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1982 10
1983 9
1984 14
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1986 16
1987 12
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1990 15
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2000 11
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2003 16
2004 21
2005 23
2006 30
2007 29
2008 25
2009 28
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Immediate-type hypersensitivity to polyethylene glycols: a review.
Wenande E, Garvey LH. Wenande E, et al. Clin Exp Allergy. 2016 Jul;46(7):907-22. doi: 10.1111/cea.12760. Clin Exp Allergy. 2016. PMID: 27196817 Review.
Polyethylene glycols (PEGs) or macrogols are polyether compounds widely used in medical and household products. ...This first comprehensive review provides practical information for allergists and other healthcare professionals by describing the clinical picture of
Polyethylene glycols (PEGs) or macrogols are polyether compounds widely used in medical and household products. ...This first
Immediate Hypersensitivity to Polyethylene Glycols and Polysorbates: More Common Than We Have Recognized.
Stone CA Jr, Liu Y, Relling MV, Krantz MS, Pratt AL, Abreo A, Hemler JA, Phillips EJ. Stone CA Jr, et al. J Allergy Clin Immunol Pract. 2019 May-Jun;7(5):1533-1540.e8. doi: 10.1016/j.jaip.2018.12.003. Epub 2018 Dec 14. J Allergy Clin Immunol Pract. 2019. PMID: 30557713 Free PMC article.
BACKGROUND: The most common immediate hypersensitivity to macrogols is associated with polyethylene glycol (PEG) 3350; however, the epidemiology, mechanisms, and cross-reactivity are poorly understood. ...Our studies raise the possibility of an IgE-mediated t …
BACKGROUND: The most common immediate hypersensitivity to macrogols is associated with polyethylene glycol (PEG) 3350; …
Polyethylene Glycol-Induced Systemic Allergic Reactions (Anaphylaxis).
Sellaturay P, Nasser S, Ewan P. Sellaturay P, et al. J Allergy Clin Immunol Pract. 2021 Feb;9(2):670-675. doi: 10.1016/j.jaip.2020.09.029. Epub 2020 Oct 1. J Allergy Clin Immunol Pract. 2021. PMID: 33011299
Polyethylene glycols (PEGs) or macrogols are hydrophilic polymers found in everyday products such as foods, cosmetics, and medications. ...
Polyethylene glycols (PEGs) or macrogols are hydrophilic polymers found in everyday products such as foods, cosmetics, and med
Pfizer's vaccine raises allergy concerns.
de Vrieze J. de Vrieze J. Science. 2021 Jan 1;371(6524):10-11. doi: 10.1126/science.371.6524.10. Science. 2021. PMID: 33384356 No abstract available.
Anti-PEG IgE in anaphylaxis associated with polyethylene glycol.
Zhou ZH, Stone CA Jr, Jakubovic B, Phillips EJ, Sussman G, Park J, Hoang U, Kirshner SL, Levin R, Kozlowski S. Zhou ZH, et al. J Allergy Clin Immunol Pract. 2021 Apr;9(4):1731-1733.e3. doi: 10.1016/j.jaip.2020.11.011. Epub 2020 Nov 17. J Allergy Clin Immunol Pract. 2021. PMID: 33217616 Free PMC article. No abstract available.
Clinical manifestations and impact on daily life of allergy to polyethylene glycol (PEG) in ten patients.
Bruusgaard-Mouritsen MA, Johansen JD, Garvey LH. Bruusgaard-Mouritsen MA, et al. Clin Exp Allergy. 2021 Mar;51(3):463-470. doi: 10.1111/cea.13822. Epub 2021 Jan 15. Clin Exp Allergy. 2021. PMID: 33394522
BACKGROUND: Polyethylene glycols (PEGs) are widely used as excipients in drugs, cosmetics and household products. ...
BACKGROUND: Polyethylene glycols (PEGs) are widely used as excipients in drugs, cosmetics and household products. ...
Hypersensitivity to polyethylene glycol in adults and children: An emerging challenge.
Bianchi A, Bottau P, Calamelli E, Caimmi S, Crisafulli G, Franceschini F, Liotti L, Mori F, Paglialunga C, Saretta F, Tosca M, Cardinale F, Licari A, Miraglia Del Giudice M, Caffarelli C. Bianchi A, et al. Acta Biomed. 2021 Nov 29;92(S7):e2021519. doi: 10.23750/abm.v92iS7.12384. Acta Biomed. 2021. PMID: 34842597 Review.
Hypersensitivity reactions to polyethylene glycol (PEG) is an emerging challenge and the interest about this disease is growing since PEG is considered one of the possible causes of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID 19) vaccine-associated anaphylaxis. ...Lack o
Hypersensitivity reactions to polyethylene glycol (PEG) is an emerging challenge and the interest about this disease is
Polyethylene Glycol Is a Cause of IgE-Mediated Anaphylaxis.
Giavina-Bianchi P, Kalil J. Giavina-Bianchi P, et al. J Allergy Clin Immunol Pract. 2019 Jul-Aug;7(6):1874-1875. doi: 10.1016/j.jaip.2019.05.001. J Allergy Clin Immunol Pract. 2019. PMID: 31279466 No abstract available.
Pegaspargase: A Review in Acute Lymphoblastic Leukaemia.
Heo YA, Syed YY, Keam SJ. Heo YA, et al. Drugs. 2019 May;79(7):767-777. doi: 10.1007/s40265-019-01120-1. Drugs. 2019. PMID: 31030380 Free PMC article. Review.
Pegaspargase treatment in patients with relapsed ALL and hypersensitivity to E. coliL-asparaginase had a similar tolerability profile to that observed in patients with newly diagnosed ALL. Given the potentially reduced immunogenicity and more convenient dosage regimen over …
Pegaspargase treatment in patients with relapsed ALL and hypersensitivity to E. coliL-asparaginase had a similar tolerability profile …
Individualized Asparaginase Dosing in Childhood Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia.
Kloos RQH, Pieters R, Jumelet FMV, de Groot-Kruseman HA, van den Bos C, van der Sluis IM. Kloos RQH, et al. J Clin Oncol. 2020 Mar 1;38(7):715-724. doi: 10.1200/JCO.19.02292. Epub 2020 Jan 10. J Clin Oncol. 2020. PMID: 31922920
PURPOSE: In the DCOG ALL-11 protocol, polyethylene glycol-conjugated Escherichia coli asparaginase (PEGasparaginase) and Erwinia asparaginase treatment of pediatric acute lymphoblastic leukemia are individualized with therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM). ...Asparagine …
PURPOSE: In the DCOG ALL-11 protocol, polyethylene glycol-conjugated Escherichia coli asparaginase (PEGasparaginase) and Erwin …
PEG-asparaginase.
Fu CH, Sakamoto KM. Fu CH, et al. Expert Opin Pharmacother. 2007 Aug;8(12):1977-84. doi: 10.1517/14656566.8.12.1977. Expert Opin Pharmacother. 2007. PMID: 17696798 Review.
The efficacy of L-asparaginases has been limited by a high rate of hypersensitivity reactions and development of anti-asparaginase antibodies, which neutralize their activity. PEG-asparaginase, a form of Escherichia coli L-asparaginase covalently linked to polyethylene
The efficacy of L-asparaginases has been limited by a high rate of hypersensitivity reactions and development of anti-asparaginase an …
Poly(ethylene glycol) in drug delivery: pros and cons as well as potential alternatives.
Knop K, Hoogenboom R, Fischer D, Schubert US. Knop K, et al. Angew Chem Int Ed Engl. 2010 Aug 23;49(36):6288-308. doi: 10.1002/anie.200902672. Angew Chem Int Ed Engl. 2010. PMID: 20648499 Review.
Poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) is the most used polymer and also the gold standard for stealth polymers in the emerging field of polymer-based drug delivery. ...The areas that might need consideration and more intensive and careful examination can be divided into the followin …
Poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) is the most used polymer and also the gold standard for stealth polymers in the emerging field of polymer …
Hypersensitivity to polyethylene glycols.
Shah S, Prematta T, Adkinson NF, Ishmael FT. Shah S, et al. J Clin Pharmacol. 2013 Mar;53(3):352-5. doi: 10.1177/0091270012447122. Epub 2013 Jan 24. J Clin Pharmacol. 2013. PMID: 23444288 No abstract available.
Ultrasound contrast agent hypersensitivity in patients allergic to polyethylene glycol: position statement by the European Association of Cardiovascular Imaging.
Senior R, Lindner JR, Edvardsen T, Cosyns B. Senior R, et al. Eur Heart J Cardiovasc Imaging. 2021 Aug 14;22(9):959-960. doi: 10.1093/ehjci/jeab120. Eur Heart J Cardiovasc Imaging. 2021. PMID: 34164650
Lipid-based UCAs (SonoVue and Luminity) are contraindicated in patients who have a history of prior hypersensitivity to these UEAs, to polyethylene glycol (PEG) (macrogol), or to PEG-containing products, such as certain bowel preps for colonoscopy or laxative …
Lipid-based UCAs (SonoVue and Luminity) are contraindicated in patients who have a history of prior hypersensitivity to these UEAs, t …
Prevention and management of asparaginase/pegasparaginase-associated toxicities in adults and older adolescents: recommendations of an expert panel.
Stock W, Douer D, DeAngelo DJ, Arellano M, Advani A, Damon L, Kovacsovics T, Litzow M, Rytting M, Borthakur G, Bleyer A. Stock W, et al. Leuk Lymphoma. 2011 Dec;52(12):2237-53. doi: 10.3109/10428194.2011.596963. Epub 2011 Aug 10. Leuk Lymphoma. 2011. PMID: 21827361
The most frequent toxicities of both types of ASNase are hepatic and pancreatic, with pancreatitis being the most serious. Other toxicities are hypersensitivity reactions, thrombosis, nausea/vomiting, and fatigue. Whether or not the replacement of one dose of pegASNase for …
The most frequent toxicities of both types of ASNase are hepatic and pancreatic, with pancreatitis being the most serious. Other toxicities …
PEGylated E. coli asparaginase desensitization: an effective and feasible option for pediatric patients with acute lymphoblastic leukemia who have developed hypersensitivity to pegaspargase in the absence of asparaginase Erwinia chrysanthemi availability.
Verma A, Chen K, Bender C, Gorney N, Leonard W, Barnette P. Verma A, et al. Pediatr Hematol Oncol. 2019 Aug;36(5):277-286. doi: 10.1080/08880018.2019.1634778. Epub 2019 Jul 12. Pediatr Hematol Oncol. 2019. PMID: 31296092 Clinical Trial.
An international shortage of erwinia asparaginase has limited the therapeutic options for those experiencing pegaspargase hypersensitivity. Here, we report pegaspargase can be safely administered, while maintaining sustained levels of asparaginase activity, to patients who …
An international shortage of erwinia asparaginase has limited the therapeutic options for those experiencing pegaspargase hypersensitivit
Expert Consensus Statement from the American Society of Echocardiography on Hypersensitivity Reactions to Ultrasound Enhancing Agents in Patients with Allergy to Polyethylene Glycol.
Lindner JR, Belcik T, Main ML, Montanaro A, Mulvagh SL, Olson J, Olyaei A, Porter TR, Senior R. Lindner JR, et al. J Am Soc Echocardiogr. 2021 Jul;34(7):707-708. doi: 10.1016/j.echo.2021.05.002. Epub 2021 May 7. J Am Soc Echocardiogr. 2021. PMID: 33971277 No abstract available.
Polyethylene glycol as marker for nitrofurazone allergy: 20 years of experience from Turkey.
Özkaya E, Kılıç S. Özkaya E, et al. Contact Dermatitis. 2018 Mar;78(3):211-215. doi: 10.1111/cod.12931. Epub 2017 Nov 28. Contact Dermatitis. 2018. PMID: 29193145
BACKGROUND: Polyethylene glycols (PEGs) and propylene glycol (PG) are used as vehicles in various medicinal and cosmetic products. ...
BACKGROUND: Polyethylene glycols (PEGs) and propylene glycol (PG) are used as vehicles in various medicinal and cosmeti …
Pre-existing antibodies against polyethylene glycol reduce asparaginase activities on first administration of pegylated E. coli asparaginase in children with acute lymphocytic leukemia.
Khalil A, Würthwein G, Golitsch J, Hempel G, Fobker M, Gerss J, Möricke A, Zimmermann M, Smisek P, Zucchetti M, Nath C, Attarbaschi A, Von Stackelberg A, Gökbuget N, Rizzari C, Conter V, Schrappe M, Boos J, Lanvers-Kaminsky C. Khalil A, et al. Haematologica. 2022 Jan 1;107(1):49-57. doi: 10.3324/haematol.2020.258525. Haematologica. 2022. PMID: 33299233 Free PMC article.
Antibodies against polyethylene glycol (PEG) in healthy subjects raise concerns about the efficacy of pegylated drugs. ...Although pre-existing anti-PEG antibodies did not boost, pre-existing anti-PEG IgG were significantly associated with firstexposure hypersens
Antibodies against polyethylene glycol (PEG) in healthy subjects raise concerns about the efficacy of pegylated drugs. ...Alth …
Allergic reactions against Covıd-19 vaccines.
Ünsal H, Şekerel BE, Şahiner ÜM. Ünsal H, et al. Turk J Med Sci. 2021 Oct 21;51(5):2233-2242. doi: 10.3906/sag-2104-329. Turk J Med Sci. 2021. PMID: 34333906 Free PMC article. Review.
The spectrum of the reactions may be just a local hypersensitiviy reaction or may be as severe as an anaphylaxis, which is an acute severe, life-threatening systemic hypersensitive reaction, and it requires quick intervention. If an allergy is suspected, a correct examinat …
The spectrum of the reactions may be just a local hypersensitiviy reaction or may be as severe as an anaphylaxis, which is an acute severe, …
Allergen-specific immunotherapy.
Niederberger V. Niederberger V. Immunol Lett. 2009 Feb 21;122(2):131-3. doi: 10.1016/j.imlet.2008.11.012. Epub 2008 Dec 25. Immunol Lett. 2009. PMID: 19100771 Review.
Pseudo-anaphylaxis to Polyethylene Glycol (PEG)-Coated Liposomes: Roles of Anti-PEG IgM and Complement Activation in a Porcine Model of Human Infusion Reactions.
Kozma GT, Mészáros T, Vashegyi I, Fülöp T, Örfi E, Dézsi L, Rosivall L, Bavli Y, Urbanics R, Mollnes TE, Barenholz Y, Szebeni J. Kozma GT, et al. ACS Nano. 2019 Aug 27;13(8):9315-9324. doi: 10.1021/acsnano.9b03942. Epub 2019 Aug 6. ACS Nano. 2019. PMID: 31348638
Polyethylene glycol (PEG)-coated nanopharmaceuticals can cause mild to severe hypersensitivity reactions (HSRs), which can occasionally be life threatening or even lethal. ...
Polyethylene glycol (PEG)-coated nanopharmaceuticals can cause mild to severe hypersensitivity reactions (HSRs), which
To PEGylate or not to PEGylate: Immunological properties of nanomedicine's most popular component, polyethylene glycol and its alternatives.
Shi D, Beasock D, Fessler A, Szebeni J, Ljubimova JY, Afonin KA, Dobrovolskaia MA. Shi D, et al. Adv Drug Deliv Rev. 2022 Jan;180:114079. doi: 10.1016/j.addr.2021.114079. Epub 2021 Dec 10. Adv Drug Deliv Rev. 2022. PMID: 34902516 Review.
Polyethylene glycol or PEG has a long history of use in medicine. Many conventional formulations utilize PEG as either an active ingredient or an excipient. ...
Polyethylene glycol or PEG has a long history of use in medicine. Many conventional formulations utilize PEG as either an acti
Pegaspargase.
Alfieri DR. Alfieri DR. Pediatr Nurs. 1995 Sep-Oct;21(5):471-4, 490. Pediatr Nurs. 1995. PMID: 8684851
It has become a significant part of most chemotherapy protocols, however, its use is sometimes limited by the development of hypersensitivity reactions. Pegaspargase offers leukemia patients adequate asparagine depletion with a reduced incidence of hypersensitivity. …
It has become a significant part of most chemotherapy protocols, however, its use is sometimes limited by the development of hypersensiti
A randomized, prospective, comparison study of polyethylene glycol 3350 without electrolytes and milk of magnesia for children with constipation and fecal incontinence.
Loening-Baucke V, Pashankar DS. Loening-Baucke V, et al. Pediatrics. 2006 Aug;118(2):528-35. doi: 10.1542/peds.2006-0220. Pediatrics. 2006. PMID: 16882804 Clinical Trial.
Compliance rates were 95% for polyethylene glycol and 65% for milk of magnesia. After 12 months, 62% of polyethylene glycol-treated children and 43% of milk of magnesia-treated children exhibited improvement, and 33% of polyethylene glycol
Compliance rates were 95% for polyethylene glycol and 65% for milk of magnesia. After 12 months, 62% of polyethylene
[Telaprevir-induced pityriasis rubra pilaris].
Schmutz JL, Trechot P. Schmutz JL, et al. Ann Dermatol Venereol. 2013 May;140(5):414-5. doi: 10.1016/j.annder.2013.01.336. Epub 2013 Mar 6. Ann Dermatol Venereol. 2013. PMID: 23663723 Review. French. No abstract available.
IgE-mediated allergy to polyethylene glycol (PEG) as a cause of anaphylaxis to mRNA COVID-19 vaccines.
Kelso JM. Kelso JM. Clin Exp Allergy. 2022 Jan;52(1):10-11. doi: 10.1111/cea.13995. Epub 2021 Sep 21. Clin Exp Allergy. 2022. PMID: 34318537 Free PMC article.
Anaphylactic reactions to mRNA COVID-19 vaccines have been reported, with the polyethylene glycol (PEG) they contain being considered a possible culprit allergen. ...
Anaphylactic reactions to mRNA COVID-19 vaccines have been reported, with the polyethylene glycol (PEG) they contain being con …
Anaphylaxis and Coronavirus Disease 2019 vaccine: a danger relationship?
Tanno LK, Castells M, Caminati M, Senna G, Demoly P. Tanno LK, et al. Curr Opin Allergy Clin Immunol. 2021 Oct 1;21(5):411-417. doi: 10.1097/ACI.0000000000000778. Curr Opin Allergy Clin Immunol. 2021. PMID: 34334663 Review.
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Anaphylactic reactions reported after Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV2) RNA vaccines were expected to be more frequent in atopic subjects and attributed to its polyethylene glycol component. RECENT FINDINGS: Anaphylaxis t …
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Anaphylactic reactions reported after Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV2) RNA vaccines were expec …
Polyethylene glycol reactive antibodies in man: titer distribution in allergic patients treated with monomethoxy polyethylene glycol modified allergens or placebo, and in healthy blood donors.
Richter AW, Akerblom E. Richter AW, et al. Int Arch Allergy Appl Immunol. 1984;74(1):36-9. doi: 10.1159/000233512. Int Arch Allergy Appl Immunol. 1984. PMID: 6706424
Antibodies to polyethylene glycol (PEG) were analyzed in patients with various allergies and in healthy blood donors employing passive hemagglutination. In untreated allergic patients and in healthy blood donors, naturally occurring anti-PEG antibody titers between …
Antibodies to polyethylene glycol (PEG) were analyzed in patients with various allergies and in healthy blood donors employing …
Anaphylaxis to Polyethylene Glycol (Colyte) in a Patient with Diverticulitis.
Lee SH, Hwang SH, Park JS, Park HS, Shin YS. Lee SH, et al. J Korean Med Sci. 2016 Oct;31(10):1662-3. doi: 10.3346/jkms.2016.31.10.1662. J Korean Med Sci. 2016. PMID: 27550498 Free PMC article.
Polyethylene glycols (PEGs) are believed to be chemically inert agents, but larger PEG polymers could have immunogenicity. ...
Polyethylene glycols (PEGs) are believed to be chemically inert agents, but larger PEG polymers could have immunogenicity. ...
Allergic reaction to polyethylene glycol in a painter.
Antolin-Amerigo D, Sánchez-González MJ, Barbarroja-Escudero J, Rodríguez-Rodríguez M, Álvarez-Perea A, Alvarez-Mon M. Antolin-Amerigo D, et al. Occup Med (Lond). 2015 Aug;65(6):502-4. doi: 10.1093/occmed/kqv072. Epub 2015 Jun 4. Occup Med (Lond). 2015. PMID: 26048329
We report a case of a male painter who visited our outpatient clinic after developing a distinct skin reaction 15 min after the ingestion of a laxative solution containing polyethylene glycol (PEG) prior to colonoscopy. He described suffering from the same skin reac …
We report a case of a male painter who visited our outpatient clinic after developing a distinct skin reaction 15 min after the ingestion of …
Polyethylene Glycol-conjugated L-asparaginase versus native L-asparaginase in combination with standard agents for children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia in second bone marrow relapse: a Children's Oncology Group Study (POG 8866).
Kurtzberg J, Asselin B, Bernstein M, Buchanan GR, Pollock BH, Camitta BM. Kurtzberg J, et al. J Pediatr Hematol Oncol. 2011 Dec;33(8):610-6. doi: 10.1097/MPH.0b013e31822d4d4e. J Pediatr Hematol Oncol. 2011. PMID: 22042277 Free PMC article. Clinical Trial.
BACKGROUND: Administration of L-asparaginase is limited by hypersensitivity reactions mediated by anti-asparaginase antibodies. To overcome this problem, native Escherichia coli L-asparaginase was conjugated to polyethylene glycol (PEG) to formulate PEG-L-asp …
BACKGROUND: Administration of L-asparaginase is limited by hypersensitivity reactions mediated by anti-asparaginase antibodies. To ov …
Pegasparaginase: where do we stand?
Zeidan A, Wang ES, Wetzler M. Zeidan A, et al. Expert Opin Biol Ther. 2009 Jan;9(1):111-9. doi: 10.1517/14712590802586058. Expert Opin Biol Ther. 2009. PMID: 19063697 Review.
Despite its well-proven clinical efficacy, the use of unmodified Escherichia coli ASP (EC-ASP) has been limited by frequent toxicities, especially the development of hypersensitivity reactions and neutralizing antibodies, and by the need for frequent administration. To ove …
Despite its well-proven clinical efficacy, the use of unmodified Escherichia coli ASP (EC-ASP) has been limited by frequent toxicities, espe …
Hidden Dangers: Recognizing Excipients as Potential Causes of Drug and Vaccine Hypersensitivity Reactions.
Caballero ML, Krantz MS, Quirce S, Phillips EJ, Stone CA Jr. Caballero ML, et al. J Allergy Clin Immunol Pract. 2021 Aug;9(8):2968-2982. doi: 10.1016/j.jaip.2021.03.002. Epub 2021 Mar 15. J Allergy Clin Immunol Pract. 2021. PMID: 33737254 Review.
For both drugs and vaccines, these are rare reactions; however, for vaccines, they are the primary cause of immediate hypersensitivity. Suspicion for these "hidden dangers" should be high, in particular, when anaphylaxis has occurred in association with multiple chemically …
For both drugs and vaccines, these are rare reactions; however, for vaccines, they are the primary cause of immediate hypersensitivity
Polyethylene glycol-modified ragweed pollen extract in rhinoconjunctivitis.
Juniper EF, Roberts RS, Kennedy LK, O'Connor J, Syty-Golda M, Dolovich J, Hargreave FE. Juniper EF, et al. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 1985 May;75(5):578-85. doi: 10.1016/0091-6749(85)90033-8. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 1985. PMID: 3989142 Clinical Trial.
Sixty-two ragweed-sensitive adult subjects volunteered to take part in a 2-year, placebo-controlled efficacy study of polyethylene glycol (PEG)-modified ragweed extract, in ragweed pollen-induced rhinoconjunctivitis. ...
Sixty-two ragweed-sensitive adult subjects volunteered to take part in a 2-year, placebo-controlled efficacy study of polyethylene
Non-IgE-dependent hypersensitivity to macrogol 6000.
Berndt K, Kuske M, Beissert S, Spornraft-Ragaller P, Bauer A. Berndt K, et al. J Dtsch Dermatol Ges. 2018 Apr;16(4):479-481. doi: 10.1111/ddg.13479. Epub 2018 Mar 26. J Dtsch Dermatol Ges. 2018. PMID: 29578283 No abstract available.
Clinical pharmacology of polyethylene glycol-L-asparaginase.
Ho DH, Brown NS, Yen A, Holmes R, Keating M, Abuchowski A, Newman RA, Krakoff IH. Ho DH, et al. Drug Metab Dispos. 1986 May-Jun;14(3):349-52. Drug Metab Dispos. 1986. PMID: 2872037
Polyethylene glycol (PEG)-L-asparaginase, at doses ranging from 500 to 8000 units/m2, was infused iv over 60 min in 31 patients of whom 27 were evaluable pharmacokinetically. ...
Polyethylene glycol (PEG)-L-asparaginase, at doses ranging from 500 to 8000 units/m2, was infused iv over 60 min in 31 patient
Potential induction of anti-PEG antibodies and complement activation toward PEGylated therapeutics.
Verhoef JJ, Carpenter JF, Anchordoquy TJ, Schellekens H. Verhoef JJ, et al. Drug Discov Today. 2014 Dec;19(12):1945-52. doi: 10.1016/j.drudis.2014.08.015. Epub 2014 Sep 7. Drug Discov Today. 2014. PMID: 25205349 Review.
Conjugation of polyethylene glycol (PEG) to therapeutics has proven to be an effective approach to increase the serum half-life. ...PEGylation has also been associated with the activation of the complement system causing severe hypersensitivity reactions. Her …
Conjugation of polyethylene glycol (PEG) to therapeutics has proven to be an effective approach to increase the serum half-lif …
Comparison of hypersensitivity rates to intravenous and intramuscular PEG-asparaginase in children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia: A meta-analysis and systematic review.
Hasan H, Shaikh OM, Rassekh SR, Howard AF, Goddard K. Hasan H, et al. Pediatr Blood Cancer. 2017 Jan;64(1):81-88. doi: 10.1002/pbc.26200. Epub 2016 Aug 31. Pediatr Blood Cancer. 2017. PMID: 27578304 Review.
The study objective was to perform a meta-analysis and systematic review to compare and generate pooled hypersensitivity rates for IM and IV PEG-ASP. METHODS: A systematic literature search was conducted for all epidemiological studies that investigated IV and IM hypers
The study objective was to perform a meta-analysis and systematic review to compare and generate pooled hypersensitivity rates for IM …
Vaccine allergy: evidence to consider for COVID-19 vaccines.
Nilsson L, Csuth Á, Storsaeter J, Garvey LH, Jenmalm MC. Nilsson L, et al. Curr Opin Allergy Clin Immunol. 2021 Aug 1;21(4):401-409. doi: 10.1097/ACI.0000000000000762. Curr Opin Allergy Clin Immunol. 2021. PMID: 34091550 Free PMC article. Review.
Few excipients are likely to have caused these reactions. IgE-mediated reactions to polyethylene glycol (PEG) and its derivatives are the most suspected, albeit hitherto unproven, causes. ...
Few excipients are likely to have caused these reactions. IgE-mediated reactions to polyethylene glycol (PEG) and its derivati …
Anaphylactic reaction to polyethylene-glycol conjugated-asparaginase: premedication and desensitization may not be sufficient.
Sahiner UM, Yavuz ST, Gökce M, Buyuktiryaki B, Altan I, Aytac S, Tuncer M, Tuncer A, Sackesen C. Sahiner UM, et al. Pediatr Int. 2013 Aug;55(4):531-3. doi: 10.1111/ped.12131. Pediatr Int. 2013. PMID: 23910807
In hypersensitive reactions to native L-asparaginase, either premedication and desensitization or substitution with polyethylene glycol conjugated asparaginase (PEG-ASP) is preferred. ...Anaphylaxis with PEG-ASP is very rare and premedication and desensitizat …
In hypersensitive reactions to native L-asparaginase, either premedication and desensitization or substitution with polyethylene
Production of a novel N-terminal PEGylated crisantaspase.
Torres-Obreque K, Meneguetti GP, Custódio D, Monteiro G, Pessoa-Junior A, de Oliveira Rangel-Yagui C. Torres-Obreque K, et al. Biotechnol Appl Biochem. 2019 May;66(3):281-289. doi: 10.1002/bab.1723. Epub 2019 Jan 7. Biotechnol Appl Biochem. 2019. PMID: 30597637
Crisantaspase is an asparaginase enzyme produced by Erwinia chrysanthemi and used to treat acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) in case of hypersensitivity to Escherichia coli l-asparaginase (ASNase). The main disadvantages of crisantaspase are the short half-life (10 H) and …
Crisantaspase is an asparaginase enzyme produced by Erwinia chrysanthemi and used to treat acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) in case of …
Allergenic components of the mRNA-1273 vaccine for COVID-19: Possible involvement of polyethylene glycol and IgG-mediated complement activation.
Klimek L, Novak N, Cabanillas B, Jutel M, Bousquet J, Akdis CA. Klimek L, et al. Allergy. 2021 Nov;76(11):3307-3313. doi: 10.1111/all.14794. Epub 2021 Jun 17. Allergy. 2021. PMID: 33657648 Free PMC article. Review.
While the culprit trigger requires investigation, initial reports suggested the excipient polyethylene glycol 2000 (PEG-2000)-contained in both vaccines as the PEG-micellar carrier system-as the potential culprit. ...
While the culprit trigger requires investigation, initial reports suggested the excipient polyethylene glycol 2000 (PEG-2000)- …
The Polysorbate containing AstraZeneca COVID-19 vaccine is tolerated by polyethylene glycol (PEG) allergic patients.
Sellaturay P, Gurugama P, Harper V, Dymond T, Ewan P, Nasser S. Sellaturay P, et al. Clin Exp Allergy. 2022 Jan;52(1):12-17. doi: 10.1111/cea.14064. Epub 2021 Dec 9. Clin Exp Allergy. 2022. PMID: 34822190
BACKGROUND: Polyethylene glycol (PEG) is the excipient found in the mRNA COVID-19 vaccines. ...
BACKGROUND: Polyethylene glycol (PEG) is the excipient found in the mRNA COVID-19 vaccines. ...
Management of Childhood Functional Constipation.
Philichi L. Philichi L. J Pediatr Health Care. 2018 Jan-Feb;32(1):103-111. doi: 10.1016/j.pedhc.2017.08.008. J Pediatr Health Care. 2018. PMID: 29229066 No abstract available.
A genome-wide association study identifies a novel susceptibility locus for the immunogenicity of polyethylene glycol.
Chang CJ, Chen CH, Chen BM, Su YC, Chen YT, Hershfield MS, Lee MM, Cheng TL, Chen YT, Roffler SR, Wu JY. Chang CJ, et al. Nat Commun. 2017 Sep 12;8(1):522. doi: 10.1038/s41467-017-00622-4. Nat Commun. 2017. PMID: 28900105 Free PMC article.
Conjugation of polyethylene glycol (PEG) to therapeutic molecules can improve bioavailability and therapeutic efficacy. ...Our findings may provide novel genetic markers for predicting the immunogenicity of PEG and efficacy of PEGylated therapeutics.Some individuals …
Conjugation of polyethylene glycol (PEG) to therapeutic molecules can improve bioavailability and therapeutic efficacy. ...Our …
Allergic contact dermatitis to polyethylene glycol and nitrofurazone.
Guijarro SC, Sánchez-Pérez J, García-Díez A. Guijarro SC, et al. Am J Contact Dermat. 1999 Dec;10(4):226-7. doi: 10.1053/AJCD01000226. Am J Contact Dermat. 1999. PMID: 10594300
We report a case of worsening dermatitis after the application of an antibiotic ointment (Furacin) containing furazone and polyethylene glycol. Patch tests to nickel sulfate, potassium dischromate, chloride cobalt, Furacin, nitrofurazone 1% petrolatum, polyethyle
We report a case of worsening dermatitis after the application of an antibiotic ointment (Furacin) containing furazone and polyethylene
Pegaspargase hypersensitivity reactions: intravenous infusion versus intramuscular injection - a review.
Beaupin LK, Bostrom B, Barth MJ, Franklin I, Jaeger R, Kamath P, Schreiber B, Bleyer A. Beaupin LK, et al. Leuk Lymphoma. 2017 Apr;58(4):766-772. doi: 10.1080/10428194.2016.1218004. Epub 2016 Sep 19. Leuk Lymphoma. 2017. PMID: 27643446 Review.
When intravenous (IV) infusion replaced intramuscular (IM) injection as the standard route of administration, there were early reports suggested an increased hypersensitivity reactions (HSRs) rate with IV administration. There have since been eight published reports compar …
When intravenous (IV) infusion replaced intramuscular (IM) injection as the standard route of administration, there were early reports sugge …
Polyethylene glycol-L-asparaginase versus native L-asparaginase in canine non-Hodgkin's lymphoma.
Teske E, Rutteman GR, van Heerde P, Misdorp W. Teske E, et al. Eur J Cancer. 1990;26(8):891-5. doi: 10.1016/0277-5379(90)90193-w. Eur J Cancer. 1990. PMID: 2145933 Clinical Trial.
No side-effects were noted in the dogs treated with PEG-L-asparaginase, whereas 14 (48%) of the L-asparaginase treated dogs had side-effects related to this drug, including anaphylactic shock (9), anorexia or vomiting (4), hypersensitivity-related oedema (3), seizures (1) …
No side-effects were noted in the dogs treated with PEG-L-asparaginase, whereas 14 (48%) of the L-asparaginase treated dogs had side-effects …
PEG That Reaction: A Case Series of Allergy to Polyethylene Glycol.
Cox F, Khalib K, Conlon N. Cox F, et al. J Clin Pharmacol. 2021 Jun;61(6):832-835. doi: 10.1002/jcph.1824. Epub 2021 Feb 28. J Clin Pharmacol. 2021. PMID: 33543766 Free PMC article.
Polyethylene glycol (PEG), also known as macrogol, is an excipient in numerous medications, health care products, cosmetics, and foods. ...Despite its ubiquity, including in 2 of the newly launched vaccines against SARS-CoV-2, awareness of PEG allergy remains low. W
Polyethylene glycol (PEG), also known as macrogol, is an excipient in numerous medications, health care products, cosmetics, a
Pegaspargase in Practice: Minimizing Toxicity, Maximizing Benefit.
Riley DO, Schlefman JM, Vitzthum Von Eckstaedt V HC, Morris AL, Keng MK, El Chaer F. Riley DO, et al. Curr Hematol Malig Rep. 2021 Jun;16(3):314-324. doi: 10.1007/s11899-021-00638-0. Epub 2021 May 12. Curr Hematol Malig Rep. 2021. PMID: 33978914 Review.
RECENT FINDINGS: Clinically significant toxicities of pegaspargase include thrombosis, hypersensitivity and inactivation, hepatotoxicity, pancreatitis, and hypertriglyceridemia. ...
RECENT FINDINGS: Clinically significant toxicities of pegaspargase include thrombosis, hypersensitivity and inactivation, hepatotoxic …
Primary care provider-reported prevalence of vaccine and polyethylene glycol allergy in Canada.
Abrams EM, Greenhawt M, Shaker M, Kosowan L, Singer AG. Abrams EM, et al. Ann Allergy Asthma Immunol. 2021 Oct;127(4):446-450.e1. doi: 10.1016/j.anai.2021.05.011. Epub 2021 May 15. Ann Allergy Asthma Immunol. 2021. PMID: 34004274 Free PMC article.
OBJECTIVE: To determine the prevalence of PCP-documented vaccine and polyethylene glycol (PEG) allergy using electronic medical record data from the Canadian Primary Care Sentinel Surveillance Network. ...
OBJECTIVE: To determine the prevalence of PCP-documented vaccine and polyethylene glycol (PEG) allergy using electronic medica …
Urticaria as a Rare Side Effect of Polyethylene Glycol-3350 in a Child: Case Report.
Sari Gökay S, Çelik T, Yusuf Sari M, Ekinci F, Dinçer Yildizdaş R, Levent Yilmaz H. Sari Gökay S, et al. Acta Clin Croat. 2018 Mar;57(1):187-189. doi: 10.20471/acc.2018.57.01.26. Acta Clin Croat. 2018. PMID: 30256031 Free PMC article.
Polyethylene glycol electrolyte (PEG-3350) solution is usually used for bowel emptying before colonoscopy in adults. ...
Polyethylene glycol electrolyte (PEG-3350) solution is usually used for bowel emptying before colonoscopy in adults. ...
Predicting success of desensitization after pegaspargase allergy.
Swanson HD, Panetta JC, Barker PJ, Liu Y, Inaba H, Relling MV, Pui CH, Karol SE. Swanson HD, et al. Blood. 2020 Jan 2;135(1):71-75. doi: 10.1182/blood.2019003407. Blood. 2020. PMID: 31750901 Free PMC article. No abstract available.
Weekly polyethylene glycol conjugated L-asparaginase compared with biweekly dosing produces superior induction remission rates in childhood relapsed acute lymphoblastic leukemia: a Pediatric Oncology Group Study.
Abshire TC, Pollock BH, Billett AL, Bradley P, Buchanan GR. Abshire TC, et al. Blood. 2000 Sep 1;96(5):1709-15. Blood. 2000. PMID: 10961868 Free article. Clinical Trial.
The relapse rate in childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) is approximately 30% but few reinduction regimens have investigated the intensive use of polyethylene glycol Escherichia coli asparaginase (PEG-Asp). Therefore, we assessed the pharmocokinetics and eff …
The relapse rate in childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) is approximately 30% but few reinduction regimens have investigated the int …
Mechanistic investigation of thermosensitive liposome immunogenicity and understanding the drivers for circulation half-life: A polyethylene glycol versus 1,2-dipalmitoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphodiglycerol study.
Lokerse WJM, Lazarian A, Kleinhempel A, Petrini M, Schwarz P, Hossann M, Holdt LM, Mailänder V, Lindner LH. Lokerse WJM, et al. J Control Release. 2021 May 10;333:1-15. doi: 10.1016/j.jconrel.2021.03.014. Epub 2021 Mar 16. J Control Release. 2021. PMID: 33741385
Sufficient circulation half-life is important and most liposomes obtain this by polyethylene glycol (PEG) surface modification. 1,2-dipalmitoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphodiglycerol (DPPG(2)) has been described as a promising alternative which increases TSL circulation hal …
Sufficient circulation half-life is important and most liposomes obtain this by polyethylene glycol (PEG) surface modification …
Specific targeting and noninvasive magnetic resonance imaging of an asthma biomarker in the lung using polyethylene glycol functionalized magnetic nanocarriers.
Al Faraj A, Shaik AS, Afzal S, Al-Muhsen S, Halwani R. Al Faraj A, et al. Contrast Media Mol Imaging. 2016 May;11(3):172-83. doi: 10.1002/cmmi.1678. Epub 2015 Dec 28. Contrast Media Mol Imaging. 2016. PMID: 26708935 Free article.
In this study, superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles were conjugated with anti-IL4Ralpha blocking antibodies via polyethylene glycol (PEG) polymers. The delivery of these blocking antibodies to the inflammatory sites in the lung via the developed nanocarriers w …
In this study, superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles were conjugated with anti-IL4Ralpha blocking antibodies via polyethylene
Effects of polyethylene glycol attachment on physicochemical and biological stability of E. coli L-asparaginase.
Soares AL, Guimarães GM, Polakiewicz B, de Moraes Pitombo RN, Abrahão-Neto J. Soares AL, et al. Int J Pharm. 2002 Apr 26;237(1-2):163-70. doi: 10.1016/s0378-5173(02)00046-7. Int J Pharm. 2002. PMID: 11955814
L-asparaginase obtained from E. coli strains is an important enzyme widely used in leukemia treatment. However, hypersensitivity reactions must be considered a relevant adverse effect of asparaginase therapy. One approach to reduce the hypersensitivity reactions cau …
L-asparaginase obtained from E. coli strains is an important enzyme widely used in leukemia treatment. However, hypersensitivity reac …
Final report on the safety assessment of Triethylene Glycol and PEG-4.
[No authors listed] [No authors listed] Int J Toxicol. 2006;25 Suppl 2:121-38. doi: 10.1080/10915810600964642. Int J Toxicol. 2006. PMID: 17090481 Review.
Triethylene Glycol and PEG-4 (polyethylene glycol) are polymers of ethylene oxide alcohol. ...There were no treatment-related effects on rats exposed to supersaturated Triethylene Glycol vapor for 13 months nor in rats that consumed 0.533 cc Triethylen …
Triethylene Glycol and PEG-4 (polyethylene glycol) are polymers of ethylene oxide alcohol. ...There were no treatment-r …
A case of anaphylaxis caused by polyethylene glycol analogues.
Yamasuji Y, Higashi Y, Sakanoue M, Katsue H, Kawai K, Arai N, Kanekura T. Yamasuji Y, et al. Contact Dermatitis. 2013 Sep;69(3):183-5. doi: 10.1111/cod.12084. Contact Dermatitis. 2013. PMID: 23948038 No abstract available.
Immune responses to polyethylene glycol modified L-asparaginase in mice.
Kawamura K, Igarashi T, Fujii T, Kamisaki Y, Wada H, Kishimoto S. Kawamura K, et al. Int Arch Allergy Appl Immunol. 1985;76(4):324-30. doi: 10.1159/000233715. Int Arch Allergy Appl Immunol. 1985. PMID: 3980111
Suppression of anti-L-asparaginase (anti-A-ase) IgG and IgE antibody responses was achieved in Balb/c mice with polyethylene glycol (PEG, MW, 5,000) conjugated Escherichia coli A-ase. ...PEG-A-ase administration also suppressed the delayed type hypersensitivity
Suppression of anti-L-asparaginase (anti-A-ase) IgG and IgE antibody responses was achieved in Balb/c mice with polyethylene glyco
Antibodies Predict Pegaspargase Allergic Reactions and Failure of Rechallenge.
Liu Y, Smith CA, Panetta JC, Yang W, Thompson LE, Counts JP, Molinelli AR, Pei D, Kornegay NM, Crews KR, Swanson H, Cheng C, Karol SE, Evans WE, Inaba H, Pui CH, Jeha S, Relling MV. Liu Y, et al. J Clin Oncol. 2019 Aug 10;37(23):2051-2061. doi: 10.1200/JCO.18.02439. Epub 2019 Jun 12. J Clin Oncol. 2019. PMID: 31188727 Free PMC article.
Serum samples (n = 5,369) were analyzed for anti-PEG-ASP immunoglobulin G by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Positive samples were tested for anti-polyethylene glycol (PEG) and anti-L-ASP. We analyzed potential risk factors for reactions and associations between …
Serum samples (n = 5,369) were analyzed for anti-PEG-ASP immunoglobulin G by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Positive samples were tested …
Skin reaction in antiviral therapy for chronic hepatitis C: a role for polyethylene glycol interferon?
Cottoni F, Bolognini S, Deplano A, Garrucciu G, Manzoni NE, Careddu GF, Montesu MA, Tocco A, Lissia A, Solinas A. Cottoni F, et al. Acta Derm Venereol. 2004;84(2):120-3. doi: 10.1080/00015550310007085. Acta Derm Venereol. 2004. PMID: 15206691 Free article. Clinical Trial.
Initially, interferon was used in monotherapy, then interferon combined with ribavirin and amantadine. Recently, interferon has been conjugated with polyethylene glycol to allow optimization of its pharmacokinetic properties and to improve its antiviral activity. Th …
Initially, interferon was used in monotherapy, then interferon combined with ribavirin and amantadine. Recently, interferon has been conjuga …
Safety aspects of pegylated liposomal doxorubicin in patients with cancer.
Alberts DS, Garcia DJ. Alberts DS, et al. Drugs. 1997;54 Suppl 4:30-5. doi: 10.2165/00003495-199700544-00007. Drugs. 1997. PMID: 9361959 Review.
Encapsulation in polyethylene glycol-coated (pegylated; Stealth) liposomes alters the pharmacokinetic characteristics, and hence the safety and tolerability profile, of doxorubicin. ...Other adverse effects included nausea and vomiting and alopecia. Acute hyperse
Encapsulation in polyethylene glycol-coated (pegylated; Stealth) liposomes alters the pharmacokinetic characteristics, and hen …
[Folliculotropic mycosis fungoides].
Baratli J, Balakirski G, Megahed M. Baratli J, et al. Hautarzt. 2014 Dec;65(12):1011-3. doi: 10.1007/s00105-014-3539-z. Hautarzt. 2014. PMID: 25355498 German.
Interferon-alpha induced psoriasis in a teenager.
Mendieta KL, Irfan M, Fernandez Faith E. Mendieta KL, et al. Pediatr Dermatol. 2018 Mar;35(2):e136-e137. doi: 10.1111/pde.13418. Pediatr Dermatol. 2018. PMID: 29575077
When good drugs turn weirdly bad.
Mandell BF. Mandell BF. Cleve Clin J Med. 2011 Jul;78(7):426. doi: 10.3949/ccjm.78b.11007. Cleve Clin J Med. 2011. PMID: 21724925 Free article. No abstract available.
COVID-19 Vaccines in Children with Cow's Milk and Food Allergies.
Liotti L, Bianchi A, Bottau P, Caimmi S, Crisafulli G, Franceschini F, Mori F, Paglialunga C, Saretta F, Caffarelli C. Liotti L, et al. Nutrients. 2021 Jul 30;13(8):2637. doi: 10.3390/nu13082637. Nutrients. 2021. PMID: 34444795 Free PMC article. Review.
COVID-19 vaccine anaphylaxis: PEG or not?
Krantz MS, Liu Y, Phillips EJ, Stone CA Jr. Krantz MS, et al. Allergy. 2021 Jun;76(6):1934-1937. doi: 10.1111/all.14722. Allergy. 2021. PMID: 34128562 Free PMC article. No abstract available.
[Intestinal permeability disorders in children].
Dupont C, Barau E, Molkhou P. Dupont C, et al. Allerg Immunol (Paris). 1991 Mar;23(3):95-103. Allerg Immunol (Paris). 1991. PMID: 2069683 Review. French.
This permeability of the intestinal mucosa, which depends mostly on the size of the molecule and the state of the mucosa, can be studied with the assistance of protein macromolecules in an allergy-immunological investigation, or with inert markers, so permitting evaluation of the …
This permeability of the intestinal mucosa, which depends mostly on the size of the molecule and the state of the mucosa, can be studied wit …
Skin toxic effects of polyethylene glycol-coated liposomal doxorubicin.
Lotem M, Hubert A, Lyass O, Goldenhersh MA, Ingber A, Peretz T, Gabizon A. Lotem M, et al. Arch Dermatol. 2000 Dec;136(12):1475-80. doi: 10.1001/archderm.136.12.1475. Arch Dermatol. 2000. PMID: 11115157 Clinical Trial.
OBJECTIVES: To record the profile of toxic effects of polyethylene glycol-coated liposomal doxorubicin hydrochloride (Doxil) to the skin, and to evaluate whether the long circulation pattern and enhanced accumulation of liposomes in specific skin sites will result i …
OBJECTIVES: To record the profile of toxic effects of polyethylene glycol-coated liposomal doxorubicin hydrochloride (Doxil) t …
Increased permeability to polyethylene glycol 4000 in rabbits with experimental colitis.
Seidman EG, Hanson DG, Walker WA. Seidman EG, et al. Gastroenterology. 1986 Jan;90(1):120-6. doi: 10.1016/0016-5085(86)90083-1. Gastroenterology. 1986. PMID: 2933289
Little information is available regarding colonic permeability to macromolecules in health or disease states. In vivo permeability of rabbit colon to [14C]polyethylene glycol 4000 (14C-PEG) was examined in the presence of immune complex-mediated experimental colitis …
Little information is available regarding colonic permeability to macromolecules in health or disease states. In vivo permeability of rabbit …
Gut permeability measured by polyethylene glycol absorption in abnormal gut fermentation as compared with food intolerance.
Eaton KK, Howard M, Howard JM. Eaton KK, et al. J R Soc Med. 1995 Feb;88(2):63-6. J R Soc Med. 1995. PMID: 7769595 Free PMC article.
Gut permeability has been studied in patients with either food intolerance or abnormal gut fermentation as well as in normal subjects. Permeability was measured by polyethylene glycol absorption, and the reasons for this choice of probe are discussed. ...
Gut permeability has been studied in patients with either food intolerance or abnormal gut fermentation as well as in normal subjects. Perme …
Effect of superoxide dismutase on a rabbit model of chronic allergic asthma.
Assa'ad AH, Ballard ET, Sebastian KD, Loven DP, Boivin GP, Lierl MB. Assa'ad AH, et al. Ann Allergy Asthma Immunol. 1998 Mar;80(3):215-24. doi: 10.1016/S1081-1206(10)62960-2. Ann Allergy Asthma Immunol. 1998. PMID: 9532968
The rabbits were then randomized into two groups that received every 48 hours an intravenous dose of either superoxide dismutase-polyethylene glycol 10,000 U/kg or inactivated superoxide dismutase-polyethylene glycol as control, followed by a 1-hour ex …
The rabbits were then randomized into two groups that received every 48 hours an intravenous dose of either superoxide dismutase-polyethy
A preliminary study of immunotherapy with a monomethoxy polyethylene glycol modified honey bee venom preparation.
Ohman S, Björkander J, Dreborg S, Lanner A, Malling HJ, Weeke B. Ohman S, et al. Allergy. 1986 Feb;41(2):81-8. doi: 10.1111/j.1398-9995.1986.tb00282.x. Allergy. 1986. PMID: 3706677
Monomethoxy polyethylene glycol (mPEG) modified honey bee venom (HBV) immunotherapy (IT) has been studied in 14 patients allergic to honey bee venom. ...
Monomethoxy polyethylene glycol (mPEG) modified honey bee venom (HBV) immunotherapy (IT) has been studied in 14 patients aller …
Alternative algorithm for L-asparaginase allergy in children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia.
Soyer OU, Aytac S, Tuncer A, Cetin M, Yetgin S, Sekerel BE. Soyer OU, et al. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2009 Apr;123(4):895-9. doi: 10.1016/j.jaci.2008.10.034. Epub 2008 Dec 10. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2009. PMID: 19081614
Polyethylene glycol-asparaginase could be used for 3 patients. Eight of the remaining 16 children, who had experienced anaphylaxis, were premedicated and desensitized with E coli-asparaginase, and in 7 patients treatment was tolerated. ...Polyethylene glyc
Polyethylene glycol-asparaginase could be used for 3 patients. Eight of the remaining 16 children, who had experienced anaphyl
Site specific PEGylation of β-lactoglobulin at glutamine residues and its influence on conformation and antigenicity.
Luo S, Lu X, Liu C, Zhong J, Zhou L, Chen T. Luo S, et al. Food Res Int. 2019 Sep;123:623-630. doi: 10.1016/j.foodres.2019.05.038. Epub 2019 May 29. Food Res Int. 2019. PMID: 31285011
beta-lactoglobulin (beta-LG) is one of the main allergens in milk. Polyethylene glycol (PEG) modification (PEGylation) was found to have the ability to reduce the antigenicity of proteins. To determine the effect of site specific PEGylation on beta-LG antigenicity a …
beta-lactoglobulin (beta-LG) is one of the main allergens in milk. Polyethylene glycol (PEG) modification (PEGylation) was fou …
Acute lymphoblastic leukaemia patients treated with PEGasparaginase develop antibodies to PEG and the succinate linker.
Kloos R, van der Sluis IM, Mastrobattista E, Hennink W, Pieters R, Verhoef JJ. Kloos R, et al. Br J Haematol. 2020 May;189(3):442-451. doi: 10.1111/bjh.16254. Epub 2019 Dec 27. Br J Haematol. 2020. PMID: 31883112
Polyethylene glycol (PEG) conjugated asparaginase (PEGasparaginase) is essential for treatment of paediatric acute lymphoblastic leukaemia. We developed an assay identifying antibodies against the PEG-moiety, the linker and the drug itself in patients experiencing
Polyethylene glycol (PEG) conjugated asparaginase (PEGasparaginase) is essential for treatment of paediatric acute lymphoblast
Pegaspargase: a review of clinical studies.
Graham ML. Graham ML. Adv Drug Deliv Rev. 2003 Sep 26;55(10):1293-302. doi: 10.1016/s0169-409x(03)00110-8. Adv Drug Deliv Rev. 2003. PMID: 14499708 Review.
Contact urticaria due to polyethylene glycol.
Fisher AA. Fisher AA. Cutis. 1977 Apr;19(4):409-12. Cutis. 1977. PMID: 856540
'Open' testing revealed an 'immediate' urticarial reaction to polyethylene glycol, which is used as a solvent in both antifungal agents. ...Apparently, this is the first written report of such an 'immediate' reaction to polyethylene glycol. Although th …
'Open' testing revealed an 'immediate' urticarial reaction to polyethylene glycol, which is used as a solvent in both antifung …
Beneficial effects of propylene and polyethylene glycol and saline in the treatment of perennial rhinitis.
Spector SL, Toshener D, Gay I, Rosenman E. Spector SL, et al. Clin Allergy. 1982 Mar;12(2):187-96. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2222.1982.tb01638.x. Clin Allergy. 1982. PMID: 7074822 Clinical Trial.
Although propylene-and-polyethylene-glycol and saline have been used in clinical studies as placebos, their possible therapeutic role as wetting agents in the treatment of perennial rhinitis was investigated. ...
Although propylene-and-polyethylene-glycol and saline have been used in clinical studies as placebos, their possible therapeut …
Tolerance induction in immediate hypersensitivity.
Sehon AH, Lee WY. Sehon AH, et al. Clin Allergy. 1979 Nov;9(6):625-36. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2222.1979.tb00489.x. Clin Allergy. 1979. PMID: 391436 Review. No abstract available.
Outcome of pediatric patients with acute lymphoblastic leukemia/lymphoblastic lymphoma with hypersensitivity to pegaspargase treated with PEGylated Erwinia asparaginase, pegcrisantaspase: A report from the Children's Oncology Group.
Rau RE, Dreyer Z, Choi MR, Liang W, Skowronski R, Allamneni KP, Devidas M, Raetz EA, Adamson PC, Blaney SM, Loh ML, Hunger SP. Rau RE, et al. Pediatr Blood Cancer. 2018 Mar;65(3):10.1002/pbc.26873. doi: 10.1002/pbc.26873. Epub 2017 Nov 1. Pediatr Blood Cancer. 2018. PMID: 29090524 Free PMC article. Clinical Trial.
BACKGROUND: Erwinia asparaginase is a Food and Drug Administration approved agent for the treatment of acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) for patients who develop hypersensitivity to Escherichia coli derived asparaginases. Erwinia asparaginase is efficacious, but has a sho …
BACKGROUND: Erwinia asparaginase is a Food and Drug Administration approved agent for the treatment of acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) fo …
A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of polyethylene glycol effects on fasting and postprandial rectal sensitivity and symptoms in hypersensitive constipation-predominant irritable bowel syndrome.
Awad RA, Camacho S. Awad RA, et al. Colorectal Dis. 2010 Nov;12(11):1131-8. doi: 10.1111/j.1463-1318.2009.01990.x. Colorectal Dis. 2010. PMID: 19575740 Clinical Trial.
AIM: To assess the effect of polyethylene glycol 3350 (PEG) on fasting and postprandial (PP) perception of rectal distension and symptoms in hypersensitive constipation-predominant irritable bowel syndrome (IBS-C). ...The results support the concept that visc …
AIM: To assess the effect of polyethylene glycol 3350 (PEG) on fasting and postprandial (PP) perception of rectal distension a …
Optimizing investigation of suspected allergy to polyethylene glycols.
Bruusgaard-Mouritsen MA, Jensen BM, Poulsen LK, Duus Johansen J, Garvey LH. Bruusgaard-Mouritsen MA, et al. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2022 Jan;149(1):168-175.e4. doi: 10.1016/j.jaci.2021.05.020. Epub 2021 May 28. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2022. PMID: 34052265 Free article. Clinical Trial.
BACKGROUND: Polyethylene glycols (PEGs) are polymers of varying molecular weight (MW) used widely as excipients in drugs and other products, including the mRNA vaccines against coronavirus disease 2019. ...
BACKGROUND: Polyethylene glycols (PEGs) are polymers of varying molecular weight (MW) used widely as excipients in drugs and o …
An open-label, multicenter study of polyethylene glycol-L-asparaginase for the treatment of acute lymphoblastic leukemia.
Ettinger LJ, Kurtzberg J, Voûte PA, Jürgens H, Halpern SL. Ettinger LJ, et al. Cancer. 1995 Mar 1;75(5):1176-81. doi: 10.1002/1097-0142(19950301)75:5<1176::aid-cncr2820750519>3.0.co;2-y. Cancer. 1995. PMID: 7850718 Clinical Trial.
Because L-asparaginase is a foreign protein, the potential exists for severe, dose-limiting hypersensitivity reactions. To reduce this toxicity, L-asparaginase has been linked with polyethylene glycol (PEG). ...All patients had been treated previously with on …
Because L-asparaginase is a foreign protein, the potential exists for severe, dose-limiting hypersensitivity reactions. To reduce thi …
Skin reactions to propylene glycol.
Hannuksela M, Pirilä V, Salo OP. Hannuksela M, et al. Contact Dermatitis. 1975;1(2):112-6. doi: 10.1111/j.1600-0536.1975.tb05336.x. Contact Dermatitis. 1975. PMID: 233872
Propylene glycol (PG), ethylene glycol (EG), and polyethylene glycol 400 (PEG 400) were tested, as is, in a total of 1,556 cases of eczema using the chamber test method. ...In them, positive reactions were elicited by testing with high dilutions of PG …
Propylene glycol (PG), ethylene glycol (EG), and polyethylene glycol 400 (PEG 400) were tested, as is, in a tota …
Molecular weight dependence of polyethylene glycol penetration across acetone-disrupted permeability barrier.
Tsai JC, Hung PL, Sheu HM. Tsai JC, et al. Arch Dermatol Res. 2001 Jun;293(6):302-7. doi: 10.1007/s004030100229. Arch Dermatol Res. 2001. PMID: 11480590
The purpose of the present study was to investigate the dependence of permeability on molecular weight (MW) in acetone-disrupted hairless mouse skin in contrast to normal skin. Penetration of polyethylene glycol (PEG) 300, 600, and 1,000 over 12 h was measured using …
The purpose of the present study was to investigate the dependence of permeability on molecular weight (MW) in acetone-disrupted hairless mo …
Acute hypersensitivity to dentifrice.
Ito M, Watanabe D, Kobayashi M, Tamada Y, Matsumoto Y. Ito M, et al. Contact Dermatitis. 2006 Apr;54(4):225. doi: 10.1111/j.0105-1873.2006.0775k.x. Contact Dermatitis. 2006. PMID: 16650107 No abstract available.
Understanding the Role of Anti-PEG Antibodies in the Complement Activation by Doxil in Vitro.
Neun BW, Barenholz Y, Szebeni J, Dobrovolskaia MA. Neun BW, et al. Molecules. 2018 Jul 12;23(7):1700. doi: 10.3390/molecules23071700. Molecules. 2018. PMID: 30002298 Free PMC article.
However, it is largely unknown why some patients develop reactions to nanomedicines while others do not, and why some nanoparticles are more reactogenic than others. One of the theories is that the pre-existing anti-polyethylene glycol (PEG) antibodies initiate the …
However, it is largely unknown why some patients develop reactions to nanomedicines while others do not, and why some nanoparticles are more …
Immediate allergic reactions by polyethylene glycol 4000: two cases.
Antón Gironés M, Roan Roan J, de la Hoz B, Sánchez Cano M. Antón Gironés M, et al. Allergol Immunopathol (Madr). 2008 Mar-Apr;36(2):110-2. doi: 10.1157/13120396. Allergol Immunopathol (Madr). 2008. PMID: 18479663
We performed allergy studies: skin prick tests with common inhalants, pure ES and the components (polyethylene glycol 4000 (PEG 4000), KCI, NaCO3, NaPO3, NaSO3, NaCI, neohesperydine, potasic acesulfam and orange flavouring), intradermic test, total serum IgE and sin …
We performed allergy studies: skin prick tests with common inhalants, pure ES and the components (polyethylene glycol 4000 (PE …
Bactroban allergy due to polyethylene glycol.
Daly BM. Daly BM. Contact Dermatitis. 1987 Jul;17(1):48-9. doi: 10.1111/j.1600-0536.1987.tb02648.x. Contact Dermatitis. 1987. PMID: 2958215 No abstract available.
Improvement of Certolizumab Fab' properties by PASylation technology.
Mazaheri S, Talebkhan Y, Mahboudi F, Nematollahi L, Cohan RA, Mirabzadeh Ardakani E, Bayat E, Sabzalinejad M, Sardari S, Torkashvand F. Mazaheri S, et al. Sci Rep. 2020 Oct 28;10(1):18464. doi: 10.1038/s41598-020-74549-0. Sci Rep. 2020. PMID: 33116155 Free PMC article.
PEGylation may have disadvantages including immunogenicity, hypersensitivity, vacuolation, decreased binding affinity and biological activity of the protein. ...
PEGylation may have disadvantages including immunogenicity, hypersensitivity, vacuolation, decreased binding affinity and biological …
Efficacy of low doses of the polyethylene glycol derivative of interleukin-2 in modulating the immune response of patients with human immunodeficiency virus type 1 infection.
Teppler H, Kaplan G, Smith K, Cameron P, Montana A, Meyn P, Cohn Z. Teppler H, et al. J Infect Dis. 1993 Feb;167(2):291-8. doi: 10.1093/infdis/167.2.291. J Infect Dis. 1993. PMID: 8421163
In an attempt to enhance cellular immunity, low-dose recombinant human (rh) IL-2 at 10 micrograms or 180,000 units or its polyethylene glycol (PEG) derivative at 9 micrograms or 36,000 units was given by intracutaneous injection to 8 HIV-1-infected men for 30 days. …
In an attempt to enhance cellular immunity, low-dose recombinant human (rh) IL-2 at 10 micrograms or 180,000 units or its polyethylene
Methylation of the phosphate oxygen moiety of phospholipid-methoxy(polyethylene glycol) conjugate prevents PEGylated liposome-mediated complement activation and anaphylatoxin production.
Moghimi SM, Hamad I, Andresen TL, Jørgensen K, Szebeni J. Moghimi SM, et al. FASEB J. 2006 Dec;20(14):2591-3. doi: 10.1096/fj.06-6186fje. Epub 2006 Oct 25. FASEB J. 2006. PMID: 17065229
Methoxy(polyethylene glycol), mPEG, -grafted liposomes are known to exhibit prolonged circulation time in the blood, but their infusion into a substantial percentage of human subjects triggers immediate non-IgE-mediated hypersensitivity reactions. ...
Methoxy(polyethylene glycol), mPEG, -grafted liposomes are known to exhibit prolonged circulation time in the blood, but their …
Histologic patterns of polyethylene glycol-liposomal doxorubicin-related cutaneous eruptions.
Cady FM, Kneuper-Hall R, Metcalf JS. Cady FM, et al. Am J Dermatopathol. 2006 Apr;28(2):168-72. doi: 10.1097/01.dad.0000199880.71481.0f. Am J Dermatopathol. 2006. PMID: 16625083
Polyethylene glycol (PEG)-liposomal doxorubicin (Stealth R, Doxil) is a formulation of doxorubicin, which is encapsulated in liposomes formulated with PEG. ...
Polyethylene glycol (PEG)-liposomal doxorubicin (Stealth R, Doxil) is a formulation of doxorubicin, which is encapsulated in l
Comparison of hypersensitivity reactions to PEG-asparaginase in children after intravenous and intramuscular administration.
August KJ, Miller WP, Dalton A, Shinnick S. August KJ, et al. J Pediatr Hematol Oncol. 2013 Oct;35(7):e283-6. doi: 10.1097/MPH.0b013e31828e5471. J Pediatr Hematol Oncol. 2013. PMID: 23619117
INTRODUCTION: Polyethylene-glycolated (PEG)-asparaginase (PEG-ASP) is a crucial component of pediatric acute lymphoblastic leukemia therapy. ...RESULTS: Of 68 patients studied, 7 experienced a hypersensitivity reaction (10.3%). Two of 16 patients (12.5%) who receive …
INTRODUCTION: Polyethylene-glycolated (PEG)-asparaginase (PEG-ASP) is a crucial component of pediatric acute lymphoblastic leukemia t …
Prolonged immunostimulatory effect of low-dose polyethylene glycol interleukin 2 in patients with human immunodeficiency virus type 1 infection.
Teppler H, Kaplan G, Smith KA, Montana AL, Meyn P, Cohn ZA. Teppler H, et al. J Exp Med. 1993 Feb 1;177(2):483-92. doi: 10.1084/jem.177.2.483. J Exp Med. 1993. PMID: 8093894 Free PMC article.
13 patients with human immunodeficiency virus type 1 infection class II-IV, but without opportunistic infection or neoplasm, received 6 micrograms (3.6 x 10(4) IU) of polyethylene glycol recombinant human interleukin 2 (PEG IL-2) intradermally twice a week for 4 mo …
13 patients with human immunodeficiency virus type 1 infection class II-IV, but without opportunistic infection or neoplasm, received 6 micr …
Steroid Allergy: Clinical Features and the Importance of Excipient Testing in a Diagnostic Algorithm.
Li PH, Wagner A, Thomas I, Watts TJ, Rutkowski R, Rutkowski K. Li PH, et al. J Allergy Clin Immunol Pract. 2018 Sep-Oct;6(5):1655-1661. doi: 10.1016/j.jaip.2018.01.007. Epub 2018 Jan 31. J Allergy Clin Immunol Pract. 2018. PMID: 29408496
OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to evaluate the clinical characteristics and frequency of excipient allergy in patients with confirmed type I hypersensitivity to systemic CS preparations. METHODS: Patients with a confirmed diagnosis of allergy (positive skin tes …
OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to evaluate the clinical characteristics and frequency of excipient allergy in patients with conf …
[Allergic reactions to COVID-19 vaccines: evidence and practice-oriented approach].
Klimek L, Eckrich J, Hagemann J, Casper I, Huppertz J. Klimek L, et al. Internist (Berl). 2021 Mar;62(3):326-332. doi: 10.1007/s00108-021-00959-5. Epub 2021 Feb 13. Internist (Berl). 2021. PMID: 33580823 Free PMC article. German.
Differences from established vaccines are addressed and the allergic potential of liposomes, polyethylene glycol, tromethamine/trometamol, and mRNA are discussed. ...
Differences from established vaccines are addressed and the allergic potential of liposomes, polyethylene glycol, tromethamine …
A phase I and pharmacodynamic evaluation of polyethylene glycol-conjugated L-asparaginase in patients with advanced solid tumors.
Taylor CW, Dorr RT, Fanta P, Hersh EM, Salmon SE. Taylor CW, et al. Cancer Chemother Pharmacol. 2001;47(1):83-8. doi: 10.1007/s002800000207. Cancer Chemother Pharmacol. 2001. PMID: 11221967 Clinical Trial.
PURPOSE: To evaluate the in vitro activity of polyethylene glycol-conjugated L-asparaginase (PEG-Lasparaginase) against fresh human tumor specimens, using the human tumor clonogenic assay (HTCA), and to perform a phase I dose-escalation clinical trial of PEG-L-aspar …
PURPOSE: To evaluate the in vitro activity of polyethylene glycol-conjugated L-asparaginase (PEG-Lasparaginase) against fresh …
Treatment of adenosine deaminase deficiency with polyethylene glycol-modified adenosine deaminase.
Hershfield MS, Buckley RH, Greenberg ML, Melton AL, Schiff R, Hatem C, Kurtzberg J, Markert ML, Kobayashi RH, Kobayashi AL, et al. Hershfield MS, et al. N Engl J Med. 1987 Mar 5;316(10):589-96. doi: 10.1056/NEJM198703053161005. N Engl J Med. 1987. PMID: 3807953
We conclude that from the standpoints of efficacy, convenience, and safety, polyethylene glycol-modified adenosine deaminase is preferable to red-cell transfusion as a treatment for adenosine deaminase deficiency. Patients with other inherited metabolic diseases in …
We conclude that from the standpoints of efficacy, convenience, and safety, polyethylene glycol-modified adenosine deaminase i …
Pegloticase hypersensitivity desensitisation: an outpatient, 3-bag, 12-step protocol.
Botson JK. Botson JK. BMJ Case Rep. 2020 Jun 21;13(6):e234721. doi: 10.1136/bcr-2020-234721. BMJ Case Rep. 2020. PMID: 32565437
Desensitisation, a procedure to tolerise a patient to a medication previously causing a hypersensitivity reaction, has been used successfully in oncology for chemotherapy treatment. ...
Desensitisation, a procedure to tolerise a patient to a medication previously causing a hypersensitivity reaction, has been used succ …
Impact of Polymer Bioconjugation on Protein Stability and Activity Investigated with Discrete Conjugates: Alternatives to PEGylation.
Morgenstern J, Gil Alvaradejo G, Bluthardt N, Beloqui A, Delaittre G, Hubbuch J. Morgenstern J, et al. Biomacromolecules. 2018 Nov 12;19(11):4250-4262. doi: 10.1021/acs.biomac.8b01020. Epub 2018 Oct 5. Biomacromolecules. 2018. PMID: 30222929
Covalent attachment of synthetic polymers to proteins, known as protein-polymer conjugation, is currently one of the main approaches for improving the physicochemical properties of these biomolecules. The most commonly employed polymer is polyethylene glycol (PEG), …
Covalent attachment of synthetic polymers to proteins, known as protein-polymer conjugation, is currently one of the main approaches for imp …
Outpatient continuous intravenous interleukin-2 or subcutaneous, polyethylene glycol-modified interleukin-2 in human immunodeficiency virus-infected patients: a randomized, controlled, multicenter study. Australian IL-2 Study Group.
Carr A, Emery S, Lloyd A, Hoy J, Garsia R, French M, Stewart G, Fyfe G, Cooper DA. Carr A, et al. J Infect Dis. 1998 Oct;178(4):992-9. doi: 10.1086/515653. J Infect Dis. 1998. PMID: 9806026 Clinical Trial.
The safety and activity of outpatient-based continuous intravenous interleukin-2 (CIV IL-2) or a slow-release, polyethylene glycol (PEG)-modified IL-2 were studied in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected persons with CD4 cell counts between 200 and 500/mm3. . …
The safety and activity of outpatient-based continuous intravenous interleukin-2 (CIV IL-2) or a slow-release, polyethylene glycol
Near-infrared reflectance spectrometry in the study of atopy. Part 2. Interactions between the skin and polyethylene glycol 400, isopropyl myristate and hydrogel.
Dreassi E, Ceramelli G, Mura P, Perruccio PL, Vocioni F, Bartalini P, Corti P. Dreassi E, et al. Analyst. 1997 Aug;122(8):771-6. doi: 10.1039/a701257h. Analyst. 1997. PMID: 9338986
Three compounds were taken as models: a prevalently hydrophilic solvent (polyethylene glycol, PEG 400), a prevalently lipophilic solvent (isopropyl myristate) and a hydrophilic pharmaceutical (gel) used to promote contact in electrocardiography. ...
Three compounds were taken as models: a prevalently hydrophilic solvent (polyethylene glycol, PEG 400), a prevalently lipophil …
A double-blind study comparing monomethoxy polyethylene glycol-modified honeybee venom and unmodified honeybee venom for immunotherapy. I. Clinical results.
Müller U, Rabson AR, Bischof M, Lomnitzer R, Dreborg S, Lanner A. Müller U, et al. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 1987 Sep;80(3 Pt 1):252-61. doi: 10.1016/0091-6749(87)90027-3. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 1987. PMID: 3624680 Clinical Trial.
Thirty-five patients were allocated at random to immunotherapy (IT) in a double-blind way with either monomethoxy polyethylene glycol (mPEG)-modified honeybee venom (HBV) or HBV. The two groups were well matched regarding age, sex, skin sensitivity, HBV-specific ser …
Thirty-five patients were allocated at random to immunotherapy (IT) in a double-blind way with either monomethoxy polyethylene gly
A preliminary study on the evaluation of asparaginase. Polyethylene glycol conjugate against canine malignant lymphoma.
MacEwen EG, Rosenthal R, Matus R, Viau AT, Abuchowski A. MacEwen EG, et al. Cancer. 1987 Jun 15;59(12):2011-5. doi: 10.1002/1097-0142(19870615)59:12<2011::aid-cncr2820591207>3.0.co;2-m. Cancer. 1987. PMID: 3567863
Thirty-seven dogs with malignant lymphoma were treated with either polyethylene glycol conjugated (PEG) asparaginase alone (10-30 IU/kg intraperitoneally [IP] weekly--20 dogs) or PEG-asparaginase combined with one cycle of chemotherapy (vincristine, cyclophosphamide …
Thirty-seven dogs with malignant lymphoma were treated with either polyethylene glycol conjugated (PEG) asparaginase alone (10 …
Time Course and Management of Protracted Anaphylaxis Due to PEG-Asparaginase.
Fertal SA, Bradeen HA, Friesen E, Heath JL. Fertal SA, et al. J Pediatr Hematol Oncol. 2021 Apr 1;43(3):e385-e387. doi: 10.1097/MPH.0000000000001906. J Pediatr Hematol Oncol. 2021. PMID: 32815880
Polyethylene glycosylated (PEG)-asparaginase is a cornerstone of treatment for acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL), and effective administration is associated with better outcomes. PEG-asparaginase is associated with a uniphasic hypersensitivity reaction in 10% to 20
Polyethylene glycosylated (PEG)-asparaginase is a cornerstone of treatment for acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL), and effective admi
Anti-PEG antibody bioanalysis: a clinical case study with PEG-IFN-λ-1a and PEG-IFN-α2a in naive patients.
Myler H, Hruska MW, Srinivasan S, Cooney E, Kong G, Dodge R, Krishna M, Zhu J, Felix T, Gleason C, Piccoli SP, DeSilva B. Myler H, et al. Bioanalysis. 2015;7(9):1093-106. doi: 10.4155/bio.15.36. Bioanalysis. 2015. PMID: 26039807
BACKGROUND: Extensive use of polyethylene glycol (PEG) in consumer products necessitates the assessment of anti-PEG antibodies (APAb). ...APAb were earlier onset, less frequent, less persistent and lower titer than AIAb. No associated hypersensitivity events …
BACKGROUND: Extensive use of polyethylene glycol (PEG) in consumer products necessitates the assessment of anti-PEG antibodies …
Clinical Characteristics of Intravenous PEG-Asparaginase Hypersensitivity Reactions in Patients Undergoing Treatment for Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia [Formula: see text].
Browne EK, Moore C, Sykes A, Lu Z, Jeha S, Mandrell BN. Browne EK, et al. J Pediatr Oncol Nurs. 2018 Mar/Apr;35(2):103-109. doi: 10.1177/1043454217741868. Epub 2017 Nov 21. J Pediatr Oncol Nurs. 2018. PMID: 29161979 Free PMC article.
BACKGROUND: Asparaginase poses a substantial risk for hypersensitivity reactions during and after administration; however, these reactions vary by asparaginase formulation and administration route. ...RESULTS: Sixty-three patients (12.8%) developed a hypersensitivity
BACKGROUND: Asparaginase poses a substantial risk for hypersensitivity reactions during and after administration; however, these reac …
In vivo Studies on Pharmacokinetics, Toxicity and Immunogenicity of Polyelectrolyte Nanocapsules Functionalized with Two Different Polymers: Poly-L-Glutamic Acid or PEG.
Karabasz A, Szczepanowicz K, Cierniak A, Mezyk-Kopec R, Dyduch G, Szczęch M, Bereta J, Bzowska M. Karabasz A, et al. Int J Nanomedicine. 2019 Dec 5;14:9587-9602. doi: 10.2147/IJN.S230865. eCollection 2019. Int J Nanomedicine. 2019. PMID: 31824153 Free PMC article.
BACKGROUND: The functionalization of a nanoparticle surface with PEG (polyethylene glycol) is an approach most often used for extending nanomaterial circulation time, enhancing its delivery and retention in the target tissues, and decreasing systemic toxicity of nan …
BACKGROUND: The functionalization of a nanoparticle surface with PEG (polyethylene glycol) is an approach most often used for …
Complement Activation: A Potential Threat on the Safety of Poly(ethylene glycol)-Coated Nanomedicines.
Gabizon A, Szebeni J. Gabizon A, et al. ACS Nano. 2020 Jul 28;14(7):7682-7688. doi: 10.1021/acsnano.0c03648. Epub 2020 Jul 9. ACS Nano. 2020. PMID: 32643376
In this issue of ACS Nano, Chen et al. provide in vitro and in vivo evidence for monoclonal anti-poly(ethylene glycol) (anti-PEG) antibody-triggered, complement terminal complex-mediated damage to PEGylated liposomal doxorubicin, entailing the release of the encapsulated d …
In this issue of ACS Nano, Chen et al. provide in vitro and in vivo evidence for monoclonal anti-poly(ethylene glycol) (anti-PEG) ant …
Liposome-induced hypersensitivity reactions: Risk reduction by design of safe infusion protocols in pigs.
Fülöp T, Kozma GT, Vashegyi I, Mészáros T, Rosivall L, Urbanics R, Storm G, Metselaar JM, Szebeni J. Fülöp T, et al. J Control Release. 2019 Sep 10;309:333-338. doi: 10.1016/j.jconrel.2019.07.005. Epub 2019 Jul 8. J Control Release. 2019. PMID: 31295544 Free article.
Intravenous administration of liposomal drugs can entail infusion reactions, also known as hypersensitivity reactions (HSRs), that can be severe and sometimes life-threatening in a small portion of patients. ...
Intravenous administration of liposomal drugs can entail infusion reactions, also known as hypersensitivity reactions (HSRs), that ca …
Anaphylaxis associated with the mRNA COVID-19 vaccines: Approach to allergy investigation.
Erdeljic Turk V. Erdeljic Turk V. Clin Immunol. 2021 Jun;227:108748. doi: 10.1016/j.clim.2021.108748. Epub 2021 Apr 28. Clin Immunol. 2021. PMID: 33932618 Free PMC article.
Proposed protocols are based on current knowledge about potential mechanisms of anaphylaxis associated with the mRNA vaccines, and the assumption that polyethylene glycol (PEG) is the most likely culprit. Allergy testing to PEGs and mRNA vaccines is complex and carr …
Proposed protocols are based on current knowledge about potential mechanisms of anaphylaxis associated with the mRNA vaccines, and the assum …
The Rising Incidence of Allergic Contact Dermatitis to Acrylates.
Gregoriou S, Tagka A, Velissariou E, Tsimpidakis A, Hatzidimitriou E, Platsidaki E, Kedikoglou S, Chatziioannou A, Katsarou A, Nicolaidou E, Rigopoulos D. Gregoriou S, et al. Dermatitis. 2020 Mar/Apr;31(2):140-143. doi: 10.1097/DER.0000000000000528. Dermatitis. 2020. PMID: 32091464
The most common sensitizer among the 156 allergic individuals was ethylene glycol dimethacrylate, which was positive in 113 cases (72.4%), and among patients with acrylate-positive patch test, the rate was 97.4%. ...
The most common sensitizer among the 156 allergic individuals was ethylene glycol dimethacrylate, which was positive in 113 cases (72 …
Asparaginase treatment in infants with acute lymphoblastic leukemia; pharmacokinetics and asparaginase hypersensitivity in Interfant-06.
Albertsen BK, Harila-Saari A, Jahnukainen K, Lähteenmäki P, Riikonen P, Möttönen M, Lausen B. Albertsen BK, et al. Leuk Lymphoma. 2019 Jun;60(6):1469-1475. doi: 10.1080/10428194.2018.1538507. Epub 2019 Jan 11. Leuk Lymphoma. 2019. PMID: 30632847
All patients without hypersensitivity had sufficiently high enzyme activity levels during treatment with both preparations. Patients with hypersensitivity reactions during treatment, characterized by the presence of either or not of clinical symptoms and no measurab …
All patients without hypersensitivity had sufficiently high enzyme activity levels during treatment with both preparations. Patients …
[Activity of Erwinia-asparaginase after anaphylactic reaction to Peg-asparaginase].
Viña Romero MM, García Gil S, Nazco Casariego GJ, Merino Alonso J, Gutiérrez Nicolás F. Viña Romero MM, et al. An Pediatr (Engl Ed). 2019 Mar;90(3):187-188. doi: 10.1016/j.anpedi.2018.03.013. Epub 2018 Apr 25. An Pediatr (Engl Ed). 2019. PMID: 29705180 Free article. Spanish. No abstract available.
A rare case of anaphylaxis to bowel prep: a case report and review of the literature.
Savitz JA, Durning SJ. Savitz JA, et al. Mil Med. 2011 Aug;176(8):944-5. doi: 10.7205/milmed-d-09-00176. Mil Med. 2011. PMID: 21882787 Review.
Polyethylene glycols (PEGs) are commonly utilized as a bowel prep prior to colonoscopy. ...
Polyethylene glycols (PEGs) are commonly utilized as a bowel prep prior to colonoscopy. ...
Basophil reactivity to BNT162b2 is mediated by PEGylated lipid nanoparticles in patients with PEG allergy.
Troelnikov A, Perkins G, Yuson C, Ahamdie A, Balouch S, Hurtado PR, Hissaria P. Troelnikov A, et al. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2021 Jul;148(1):91-95. doi: 10.1016/j.jaci.2021.04.032. Epub 2021 May 12. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2021. PMID: 33991580
BACKGROUND: The mechanisms underpinning allergic reactions to the BNT162b2 (Pfizer) COVID-19 vaccine remain unknown, with polyethylene glycol (PEG) contained in the lipid nanoparticle suspected as being the cause. ...METHODS: Three known individuals with PEG allergy …
BACKGROUND: The mechanisms underpinning allergic reactions to the BNT162b2 (Pfizer) COVID-19 vaccine remain unknown, with polyethylene
Determination of IgE-containing immune complexes in human sera. Evaluation of polyethylene glycol precipitation of monomeric and complex IgE and of the detectability of IgE in the complexes.
Djurup R, Kappelgaard E, Stahl Skov P, Permin H, Nielsen H. Djurup R, et al. Allergy. 1984 Jul;39(5):395-406. doi: 10.1111/j.1398-9995.1984.tb01958.x. Allergy. 1984. PMID: 6465483
We studied the polyethylene (PEG) precipitability of monomeric human IgE, and of human IgE artificially complexed with rabbit anti-human IgE. ...
We studied the polyethylene (PEG) precipitability of monomeric human IgE, and of human IgE artificially complexed with rabbit anti-hu …
Polysorbate 80 hypersensitivity.
Shelley WB, Talanin N, Shelley ED. Shelley WB, et al. Lancet. 1995 May 20;345(8960):1312-3. doi: 10.1016/s0140-6736(95)90963-x. Lancet. 1995. PMID: 7746084 No abstract available.
A double blind study on immunotherapy with chemically modified honey bee venom: monomethoxy polyethylene glycol-coupled versus crude honey bee venom.
Müller U, Lanner A, Schmid P, Bischof M, Dreborg S, Hoigné R. Müller U, et al. Int Arch Allergy Appl Immunol. 1985;77(1-2):201-3. doi: 10.1159/000233786. Int Arch Allergy Appl Immunol. 1985. PMID: 4008075 Clinical Trial.
24 patients with honey bee sting allergy were treated with either honey bee venom (HBV) or monomethoxy polyethylene glycol-coupled HBV (PEG-HBV) in a double blind trial. Both treatments induced a strong increase in HBV-specific IgG antibodies in most patients. ...
24 patients with honey bee sting allergy were treated with either honey bee venom (HBV) or monomethoxy polyethylene glycol-cou …
Liposomal doxorubicin: the good, the bad and the not-so-ugly.
Szebeni J, Fülöp T, Dézsi L, Metselaar B, Storm G. Szebeni J, et al. J Drug Target. 2016 Nov;24(9):765-767. doi: 10.3109/1061186X.2016.1172591. Epub 2016 Apr 27. J Drug Target. 2016. PMID: 27030293
These include (1) the decreased uptake of the drug by the MPS which may entail enhanced tumor uptake, and, hence, improved therapeutic efficacy; (2) the use of slow infusion protocols in reducing the risk of hypersensitivity (infusion) reactions; and (3), possible protecti …
These include (1) the decreased uptake of the drug by the MPS which may entail enhanced tumor uptake, and, hence, improved therapeutic effic …
CTAB-coated gold nanorods elicit allergic response through degranulation and cell death in human basophils.
Cheung KL, Chen H, Chen Q, Wang J, Ho HP, Wong CK, Kong SK. Cheung KL, et al. Nanoscale. 2012 Aug 7;4(15):4447-9. doi: 10.1039/c2nr30435j. Epub 2012 Jun 15. Nanoscale. 2012. PMID: 22699707
The effect of CTAB (cetyltrimethylammonium bromide)- or PEG (polyethylene glycol)-coated gold-nanorods (Au-NRs) on the non-IgE mediated allergic response was studied. ...
The effect of CTAB (cetyltrimethylammonium bromide)- or PEG (polyethylene glycol)-coated gold-nanorods (Au-NRs) on the non-IgE …
Short-term intratracheal use of PEG-modified IL-2 and glucocorticoid persistently alleviates asthma in a mouse model.
Wu K, Ma J, Bai W, Cui X, Han T, Wang S, Xie Y, Xie Y. Wu K, et al. Sci Rep. 2016 Aug 16;6:31562. doi: 10.1038/srep31562. Sci Rep. 2016. PMID: 27527926 Free PMC article.
In this study, we show that short-term intratracheal use of IL-2 combined with glucocorticoid alleviates antigen-induced airway inflammation and reduces airway hyperresponsiveness by expanding antigen-nonspecific Treg cells, with a decrease in T helper 2 (Th2) cells and Th2-assoc …
In this study, we show that short-term intratracheal use of IL-2 combined with glucocorticoid alleviates antigen-induced airway inflammation …
[Preparation and evaluation of press-coated aminophylline tablet using crystalline cellulose and polyethylene glycol in the outer shell for timed-release dosage forms].
Watanabe Y, Mukai B, Kawamura K, Ishikawa T, Namiki M, Utoguchi N, Fujii M. Watanabe Y, et al. Yakugaku Zasshi. 2002 Feb;122(2):157-62. doi: 10.1248/yakushi.122.157. Yakugaku Zasshi. 2002. PMID: 11857956 Free article. Japanese.
In an attempt to achieve chronopharmacotherapy for asthma, press-coated tablets (250 mg), which contained aminophylline in the core tablet in the form of low-substituted hydroxypropylcellulose (L-HPC) and coated with crystalline cellulose (PH-102) and polyethylene glyco
In an attempt to achieve chronopharmacotherapy for asthma, press-coated tablets (250 mg), which contained aminophylline in the core tablet i …
Polyethylene glycol-modified ragweed extract: comparison of two treatment regimens.
Juniper EF, O'Connor J, Roberts RS, Evans S, Hargreave FE, Dolovich J. Juniper EF, et al. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 1986 Nov;78(5 Pt 1):851-6. doi: 10.1016/0091-6749(86)90229-0. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 1986. PMID: 3782653 Clinical Trial.
Fifty ragweed-sensitive subjects were each administered a course of 12 injections of polyethylene glycol-modified ragweed extract. To investigate the effect of two treatment regimens, subjects were paired according to their skin sensitivity to ragweed extract and th …
Fifty ragweed-sensitive subjects were each administered a course of 12 injections of polyethylene glycol-modified ragweed extr …
Assessing the role of the biomaterial Aquavene in patient reactions to Landmark midline catheters.
Silverstein B, Witkin KM, Frankos VH, Terr AI. Silverstein B, et al. Regul Toxicol Pharmacol. 1997 Feb;25(1):60-7. doi: 10.1006/rtph.1996.1057. Regul Toxicol Pharmacol. 1997. PMID: 9056501 Review.
They are constructed of an inner layer of polyurethane and an outer layer of the biomaterial Aquavene, a blend of polyurethane and polyethylene oxide to which butylated hyroxyanisole (BHA), butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT), and triallyl-s-triazine trione (TTT) are added. ... …
They are constructed of an inner layer of polyurethane and an outer layer of the biomaterial Aquavene, a blend of polyurethane and polyet
Allergic contact dermatitis to copolymers in cosmetics--case report and review of the literature.
Quartier S, Garmyn M, Becart S, Goossens A. Quartier S, et al. Contact Dermatitis. 2006 Nov;55(5):257-67. doi: 10.1111/j.1600-0536.2006.00960.x. Contact Dermatitis. 2006. PMID: 17026690 Review.
We report a case of allergic contact dermatitis to polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP)/hexadecene copolymer in a purple-colored lipstick and review the literature on allergic contact dermatitis to 7 copolymers: PVP/hexadecene, PVP/eicosene, PVP/1-triacontene, methoxy polyethyleneglycol (P …
We report a case of allergic contact dermatitis to polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP)/hexadecene copolymer in a purple-colored lipstick and review t …
IgE-Mediated Anaphylaxis Induced by Macrogol 6000.
Caballero ML, Lluch-Bernal M, Vilà-Nadal G, Lluncor M, Quirce S. Caballero ML, et al. J Investig Allergol Clin Immunol. 2016;26(6):398-400. doi: 10.18176/jiaci.0089. J Investig Allergol Clin Immunol. 2016. PMID: 27996956 Free article. No abstract available.
Nanoparticles from Gantrez AN-poly(ethylene glycol) conjugates as carriers for oral delivery of docetaxel.
Ruiz-Gatón L, Espuelas S, Huarte J, Larrañeta E, Martin-Arbella N, Irache JM. Ruiz-Gatón L, et al. Int J Pharm. 2019 Nov 25;571:118699. doi: 10.1016/j.ijpharm.2019.118699. Epub 2019 Sep 16. Int J Pharm. 2019. PMID: 31536764
Animals orally treated with DTX-loaded nanoparticles displayed less severe signs of hypersensitivity reactions, peripheral neurotoxicity, myelosuppression and hepatotoxicity than free iv docetaxel. ...
Animals orally treated with DTX-loaded nanoparticles displayed less severe signs of hypersensitivity reactions, peripheral neurotoxic …
Comparison of allergic reactions to pegasparaginase given intravenously versus intramuscularly.
Pidaparti M, Bostrom B. Pidaparti M, et al. Pediatr Blood Cancer. 2012 Sep;59(3):436-9. doi: 10.1002/pbc.23380. Epub 2011 Oct 20. Pediatr Blood Cancer. 2012. PMID: 22021170
BACKGROUND: Pegasparaginase (PEG) is important for treatment of Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia (ALL). Despite conjugation to polyethylene glycol to reduce immunogenicity, allergic reactions still occur and may be severe. ...
BACKGROUND: Pegasparaginase (PEG) is important for treatment of Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia (ALL). Despite conjugation to polyethylene
Hypersensitivity and loss of disease site targeting caused by antibody responses to PEGylated liposomes.
Judge A, McClintock K, Phelps JR, Maclachlan I. Judge A, et al. Mol Ther. 2006 Feb;13(2):328-37. doi: 10.1016/j.ymthe.2005.09.014. Epub 2005 Nov 7. Mol Ther. 2006. PMID: 16275098 Free article.
This phenomenon is characterized by a loss of disease site targeting, accelerated clearance from the blood, and acute hypersensitivity. These effects are fully attributable to a surprisingly robust, long-lived antibody response generated against polyethylene glyc
This phenomenon is characterized by a loss of disease site targeting, accelerated clearance from the blood, and acute hypersensitivity
Immune complex assays and their limitations.
Kilpatrick DC, Weston J. Kilpatrick DC, et al. Med Lab Sci. 1985 Apr;42(2):178-85. Med Lab Sci. 1985. PMID: 2933572 Review. No abstract available.
Circulating immune complexes in IgA deficiency.
Kwitko AO, McKenzie PE, Shearman DJ, Gormly AA, Woodroffe AJ. Kwitko AO, et al. Clin Exp Immunol. 1979 Oct;38(1):45-51. Clin Exp Immunol. 1979. PMID: 527254 Free PMC article.
The presence of cryoglobulins (thirteen out of thirty-one patients) and increased polyethylene glycol precipitation (ten out of thirty patients) provided additional evidence for the presence of IC. ...
The presence of cryoglobulins (thirteen out of thirty-one patients) and increased polyethylene glycol precipitation (ten out o …
Low-molecular-weight heparin (LMWH)-loaded large porous PEG-PLGA particles for the treatment of asthma.
Patel B, Gupta N, Ahsan F. Patel B, et al. J Aerosol Med Pulm Drug Deliv. 2014 Feb;27(1):12-20. doi: 10.1089/jamp.2013.1073. Epub 2013 Nov 28. J Aerosol Med Pulm Drug Deliv. 2014. PMID: 24286441 Free PMC article.
In this study, we sought to evaluate the efficacy of LMWH-loaded large porous polyethylene glycol-poly(D,L-lactide-co-glycolide) (PEG-PLGA) particulate formulations in alleviating the cellular and biochemical changes associated with asthma. ...
In this study, we sought to evaluate the efficacy of LMWH-loaded large porous polyethylene glycol-poly(D,L-lactide-co-glycolid …
Safety of administration of BNT162b2 mRNA (Pfizer-BioNTech) COVID-19 vaccine in youths and young adults with a history of acute lymphoblastic leukemia and allergy to PEG-asparaginase.
Mark C, Gupta S, Punnett A, Upton J, Orkin J, Atkinson A, Clarke L, Heisey A, McGovern C, Alexander S. Mark C, et al. Pediatr Blood Cancer. 2021 Nov;68(11):e29295. doi: 10.1002/pbc.29295. Epub 2021 Aug 16. Pediatr Blood Cancer. 2021. PMID: 34398511 Free PMC article.
Vaccinationis a critical tool in the prevention of COVID-19 infection for individuals and for communities. The mRNA vaccines contain polyethylene glycol (PEG) as a stabilizer. Currently, in North America, only the BNT162b2 (Pfizer-BioNTech) mRNA vaccine is approved …
Vaccinationis a critical tool in the prevention of COVID-19 infection for individuals and for communities. The mRNA vaccines contain poly
Immediate and delayed allergic contact reactions to polyethylene glycol.
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The lower molecular weight liquid polyethylene glycols (PEG) varying from 200 to 700 are extensively used as solvent vehicles in topical medicaments. Four patients showed allergic reactions to these liquid polyethylene glycols in topical medications. T …
The lower molecular weight liquid polyethylene glycols (PEG) varying from 200 to 700 are extensively used as solvent vehicles …
Implementation of the asparaginase activity assessment technique for clinical use: experience of a Brazilian Center.
Cecconello DK, Rechenmacher C, Werlang I, Zenatti PP, Yunes JA, Alegretti AP, Lanvers-Kaminsky C, Daudt LE, Michalowski MB. Cecconello DK, et al. Sci Rep. 2020 Dec 8;10(1):21481. doi: 10.1038/s41598-020-78549-y. Sci Rep. 2020. PMID: 33293625 Free PMC article.
This difference may be due to the implementation of supportive care, including the assessment of asparaginase (ASNase) activity. ASNase may cause hypersensitivity reactions and silent drug inactivation. For this reason, ASNase activity monitoring is an essential tool to en …
This difference may be due to the implementation of supportive care, including the assessment of asparaginase (ASNase) activity. ASNase may …
In vitro and in vivo evaluation of multilayered pastilles for chronotherapeutic management of nocturnal asthma.
Shukla D, Chakraborty S, Mishra B. Shukla D, et al. Expert Opin Drug Deliv. 2012 Jan;9(1):9-18. doi: 10.1517/17425247.2012.638915. Epub 2011 Nov 26. Expert Opin Drug Deliv. 2012. PMID: 22118427
RESEARCH DESIGN & METHODS: Pastilles consisting of the drug, polyethylene glycol and colloidal silicon dioxide, were generated using an in-house laboratory-scale pastillation device. ...
RESEARCH DESIGN & METHODS: Pastilles consisting of the drug, polyethylene glycol and colloidal silicon dioxide, were gener …
Complement activation on surfaces modified with ethylene glycol units.
Arima Y, Toda M, Iwata H. Arima Y, et al. Biomaterials. 2008 Feb;29(5):551-60. doi: 10.1016/j.biomaterials.2007.10.015. Epub 2007 Nov 5. Biomaterials. 2008. PMID: 17981322
However, unanticipated body reactions such as hypersensitivity reactions caused by PEG-modified surfaces have been reported. ...In this study, complement activation on surfaces modified with ethylene glycol units was examined. Two surfaces modified with tri(ethylene …
However, unanticipated body reactions such as hypersensitivity reactions caused by PEG-modified surfaces have been reported. ...In th …
Local Effects on Airway Inflammation and Systemic Uptake of 5 nm PEGylated and Citrated Gold Nanoparticles in Asthmatic Mice.
Omlor AJ, Le DD, Schlicker J, Hannig M, Ewen R, Heck S, Herr C, Kraegeloh A, Hein C, Kautenburger R, Kickelbick G, Bals R, Nguyen J, Dinh QT. Omlor AJ, et al. Small. 2017 Mar;13(10). doi: 10.1002/smll.201603070. Epub 2016 Dec 23. Small. 2017. PMID: 28009478
Here, BALB/c mice are treated according to the ovalbumin (OVA) asthma protocol to promote allergic airway inflammation. Dispersions of polyethylene-glycol-coated (PEGylated) and citrate/tannic-acid-coated (citrated) 5 nm gold nanoparticles are applied intranasally t …
Here, BALB/c mice are treated according to the ovalbumin (OVA) asthma protocol to promote allergic airway inflammation. Dispersions of po
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