A review of EEG biofeedback treatment of anxiety disorders

Clin Electroencephalogr. 2000 Jan;31(1):1-6. doi: 10.1177/155005940003100105.


Alpha, theta and alpha-theta enhancements are effective treatments of the anxiety disorders (Table 1). Alpha suppression is also effective, but less so (Table 2). Perceived success in carrying out the task plays an important role in clinical improvement. Research is needed to find out how much more effective they are than placebo, and which variables are important for efficacy. Variables needing study are: duration of treatment, type and severity of anxiety, number and type of EEG waveforms used, pretreatment with other kinds of feedback, position and number of electrodes, and presence of concomitant medication.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Alpha Rhythm
  • Anti-Anxiety Agents / therapeutic use
  • Anxiety Disorders / classification
  • Anxiety Disorders / drug therapy
  • Anxiety Disorders / therapy*
  • Biofeedback, Psychology / methods*
  • Conditioning, Operant
  • Electroencephalography* / instrumentation
  • Electroencephalography* / methods
  • Humans
  • Placebos
  • Theta Rhythm
  • Time Factors


  • Anti-Anxiety Agents
  • Placebos