The atypical protein kinase C (aPKC)-interacting protein, p62, has previously been shown to interact with RIP, linking these kinases to NF-kappaB activation by tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFalpha). The aPKCs have been implicated in the activation of IKKbeta in TNFalpha-stimulated cells and have been shown to be activated in response to interleukin-1 (IL-1). Here we demonstrate that the inhibition of the aPKCs or the down-regulation of p62 severely abrogates NF-kappaB activation by IL-1 and TRAF6, suggesting that both proteins are critical intermediaries in this pathway. Consistent with this we show that p62 selectively interacts with the TRAF domain of TRAF6 but not that of TRAF5 or TRAF2 in co-transfection experiments. The binding of endogenous p62 to TRAF6 is stimulus dependent, reinforcing the notion that this is a physiologically relevant interaction. Furthermore, we demonstrate that the N-terminal domain of TRAF6, which is required for signaling, interacts with zetaPKC in a dimerization-dependent manner. Together, these results indicate that p62 is an important intermediary not only in TNFalpha but also in IL-1 signaling to NF-kappaB through the specific adapters RIP and TRAF6.