Hypnosis and suggestion-based approaches to smoking cessation: an examination of the evidence

Int J Clin Exp Hypn. 2000 Apr;48(2):195-224. doi: 10.1080/00207140008410048.


This article reviews 59 studies of hypnosis and smoking cessation as to whether the research empirically supports hypnosis as a treatment. Whereas hypnotic procedures generally yield higher rates of abstinence relative to wait-list and no-treatment conditions, hypnotic interventions are generally comparable to a variety of nonhypnotic treatments. The evidence for whether hypnosis yields outcomes superior to placebos is mixed. In short, hypnosis cannot be considered a specific and efficacious treatment for smoking cessation. Furthermore, in many cases, it is impossible to rule out cognitive/behavioral and educational interventions as the source of positive treatment gains associated with hypnotic treatments. Hypnosis cannot, as yet, be regarded as a well-established treatment for smoking cessation. Nevertheless, it seems justified to classify hypnosis as a "possibly efficacious" treatment for smoking cessation.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Humans
  • Hypnosis / methods*
  • Smoking / therapy*
  • Smoking Cessation*
  • Suggestion
  • Treatment Outcome