Tick-borne encephalitis

Clin Infect Dis. 1999 Apr;28(4):882-90. doi: 10.1086/515195.


Tick-borne encephalitis (TBE) is a zoonotic arbovirus infection endemic to Russia and Eastern and Central Europe. Despite being a common and serious life-threatening disease for which a mass vaccination program was implemented in Austria, there is only limited reference to this disease in the English-language literature. TBE is transmitted to humans usually by the bite of a tick (either Ixodes persulcatus or Ixodes ricinus); occasionally, cases occur following consumption of infected unpasteurized milk. Transmission is seasonal and occurs in spring and summer, particularly in rural areas favored by the vector. TBE is a serious cause of acute central nervous system disease, which may result in death or long-term neurological sequelae. Effective vaccines are available in a few countries. The risk for travelers of acquiring TBE is increasing with the recent rise in tourism to areas of endemicity during spring and summer.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Arachnid Vectors / virology
  • Encephalitis Viruses, Tick-Borne
  • Encephalitis, Tick-Borne* / diagnosis
  • Encephalitis, Tick-Borne* / epidemiology
  • Encephalitis, Tick-Borne* / therapy
  • Encephalitis, Tick-Borne* / transmission
  • Humans
  • Ixodes / virology