Fungal peritonitis in children receiving peritoneal dialysis: a report of the NAPRTCS

Kidney Int. 2000 Jul;58(1):384-9. doi: 10.1046/j.1523-1755.2000.00176.x.


Background: The rarity of fungal peritonitis (FP) in children receiving chronic peritoneal dialysis (PD) has limited the amount of information available regarding the risk factors and management associated with this infection.

Methods: We reviewed all cases of FP occurring in patients entered into the dialysis registry of the NAPRTCS between January 1992 and May 1996 in an attempt to identify risk factors for infection, treatment strategies, and patient outcome data. A total of 1592 patients who were less than 21 years of age were enrolled in the dialysis registry and received maintenance PD during the period of observation.

Results: Of the total 1729 episodes of peritonitis in these patients occurring over 1732 patient-years of follow-up, FP accounted for 51 (2.9%) of the episodes. The patients on PD who developed FP were similar to those who did not develop FP with regard to race, gender, dialysis modality, and dialysis access characteristics. The overall peritonitis rate in patients who developed FP was 2.2 episodes per patient-year compared with 0.96 episodes per patient-year in the patients who did not develop this infection (P < 0.0001). In 25 (49%) cases, the FP was the patient's initial episode of peritonitis. Whereas recent antibiotic usage was present in 23 (56%) of 41 patients with FP, there was no statistically significant relationship (P = 0.26) noted between the presence of a gastrostomy and the development of FP. Candida species caused 33 of 42 (78.6%) FP episodes. Therapy consisted of PD catheter removal and Amphotericin B in the majority of patients. Six months after diagnosis, 27 patients remained on PD, twelve patients were receiving hemodialysis, and only three patients had died, in each case for reasons unrelated to their FP episode.

Conclusion: FP is an infrequent cause of peritonitis in children receiving chronic PD. The presence of a gastrostomy does not appear to predispose patients to the development of this infection, and successful therapy most often consists of a combination of antifungal medication and dialysis catheter removal. The outcome of FP in children appears to be more favorable than in the adult dialysis population.

MeSH terms

  • Adolescent
  • Adult
  • Candidiasis / epidemiology*
  • Child
  • Child, Preschool
  • Female
  • Follow-Up Studies
  • Gastrostomy
  • Humans
  • Infant
  • Infant, Newborn
  • Kidney Failure, Chronic / microbiology*
  • Kidney Failure, Chronic / therapy*
  • Male
  • Peritoneal Dialysis*
  • Peritonitis / epidemiology*
  • Peritonitis / microbiology*
  • Risk Factors