Macrolides are currently used to treat Streptococcus pyogenes infections where allergy or resistance prevents the use of penicillin. However, growing macrolide resistance is now seen worldwide, with rates of 5%-40% being reported. In this context it is therefore important to have other therapeutic options. The aim of this study was to ascertain the potential role of moxifloxacin, a third-generation fluoroquinolone, in the treatment of infections caused by group A S. pyogenes. The antimicrobial susceptibilities of S. pyogenes isolated from 197 adult patients with pharyngotonsillitis were analyzed by the E-test. Twelve percent of the isolates were resistant to macrolides, and 5% showed diminished susceptibility toward penicillin; none of the strains were resistant to cefotaxime or to moxifloxacin (90% minimum inhibitory concentration, 0.25 microg/mL). Therefore, moxifloxacin may be a therapeutic option in the management of S. pyogenes infections when penicillin cannot be used or when macrolide resistance may be a local issue. Clinical studies of moxifloxacin in pharyngotonsillitis are warranted.