Simultaneous occurrence of advanced neuroblastoma and acute myeloid leukemia

Pediatr Hematol Oncol. 2001 Mar;18(2):129-35. doi: 10.1080/088800101300002964.


The authors report the case of a 4-year-old boy with a diagnosis of stage IV neuroblastoma (NB), who had been treated with 6 cycles of cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, cisplatin, and etoposide for 12 months. The patient reached partial remission and presented a diagnosis of acute myelomonocytic leukemia (M4 AML), confirmed by immunophenotyping. After 2 months of therapy for leukemia, the child died with both malignancies in activity. A necropsy histologically confirmed the simultaneity of the two diseases. The authors review the possibilities of this association. The review leads to the conclusion that AML can occur as a secondary malignancy after the onset of the neuroblastoma, or be suggested by a misdiagnosis. The simultaneous occurrence of both as described here is not, however, found in the literature, to the best of the authors' knowledge.

Publication types

  • Case Reports

MeSH terms

  • Antineoplastic Agents, Alkylating / administration & dosage
  • Antineoplastic Agents, Alkylating / toxicity
  • Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / administration & dosage
  • Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / toxicity
  • Bone Marrow / pathology
  • Child, Preschool
  • Fatal Outcome
  • Humans
  • Immunohistochemistry
  • Immunophenotyping
  • Leukemia, Myelomonocytic, Acute / diagnosis
  • Leukemia, Myelomonocytic, Acute / etiology*
  • Leukemia, Myelomonocytic, Acute / pathology
  • Male
  • Neoplasms, Second Primary / diagnosis*
  • Neoplasms, Second Primary / etiology
  • Neoplasms, Second Primary / pathology
  • Neuroblastoma / diagnosis
  • Neuroblastoma / drug therapy*
  • Neuroblastoma / pathology
  • Neutropenia / etiology


  • Antineoplastic Agents, Alkylating