Background and purpose: Intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) constitutes 10% to 15% of all strokes and remains without a treatment of proven benefit. Despite several existing outcome prediction models for ICH, there is no standard clinical grading scale for ICH analogous to those for traumatic brain injury, subarachnoid hemorrhage, or ischemic stroke.
Methods: Records of all patients with acute ICH presenting to the University of California, San Francisco during 1997-1998 were reviewed. Independent predictors of 30-day mortality were identified by logistic regression. A risk stratification scale (the ICH Score) was developed with weighting of independent predictors based on strength of association.
Results: Factors independently associated with 30-day mortality were Glasgow Coma Scale score (P<0.001), age >/=80 years (P=0.001), infratentorial origin of ICH (P=0.03), ICH volume (P=0.047), and presence of intraventricular hemorrhage (P=0.052). The ICH Score was the sum of individual points assigned as follows: GCS score 3 to 4 (=2 points), 5 to 12 (=1), 13 to 15 (=0); age >/=80 years yes (=1), no (=0); infratentorial origin yes (=1), no (=0); ICH volume >/=30 cm(3) (=1), <30 cm(3) (=0); and intraventricular hemorrhage yes (=1), no (=0). All 26 patients with an ICH Score of 0 survived, and all 6 patients with an ICH Score of 5 died. Thirty-day mortality increased steadily with ICH Score (P<0.005).
Conclusions: The ICH Score is a simple clinical grading scale that allows risk stratification on presentation with ICH. The use of a scale such as the ICH Score could improve standardization of clinical treatment protocols and clinical research studies in ICH.