Position and orientation in space of bones during movement: anatomical frame definition and determination

Clin Biomech (Bristol, Avon). 1995 Jun;10(4):171-178. doi: 10.1016/0268-0033(95)91394-t.


This paper deals with methodological problems related to the reconstruction of the position and orientation of the human pelvis and the lower limb bones in space during the execution of locomotion and physical exercises using a stereophotogrammetric system. The intention is to produce a means of quantitative description of joint kinematics and dynamics for both research and application. Anatomical landmarks and bone-embedded anatomical reference systems are defined. A contribution is given to definition of variables and relevant terminology. The concept of anatomical landmark calibration is introduced and relevant experimental approaches presented. The problem of data sharing is also addressed. This material is submitted to the scientific community for consideration as a basis for standardization. RELEVANCE: In order to make movement analysis effective in the solution of clinical problems, a structured conceptual background is needed in addition to standardized definitions and methods. Technical solutions which make data sharing and relevant data banks possible are also of primary importance. This paper makes suggestions in this context.