Physiological responses to short-term exercise in the heat after creatine loading

Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2001 Jul;33(7):1101-8. doi: 10.1097/00005768-200107000-00006.


Purpose: This investigation was designed to examine the influence of creatine (Cr) supplementation on acute cardiovascular, renal, temperature, and fluid-regulatory hormonal responses to exercise for 35 min in the heat.

Methods: Twenty healthy men were matched and then randomly assigned to consume 0.3 Cr monohydrate (N = 10) or placebo (N = 10) for 7 d in a double-blind fashion. Before and after supplementation, both groups cycled for 30 min at 60-70% VO2(peak) immediately followed by three 10-s sprints in an environmental chamber at 37 degrees C and 80% relative humidity.

Results: Body mass was significantly increased (0.75 kg) in Cr subjects. Heart rate, blood pressure, and sweat rate responses to exercise were not significantly different between groups. There were no differences in rectal temperature responses in either group. Sodium, potassium, and creatinine excretion rates obtained from 24-h and exercise urine collection periods were not significantly altered in either group. Serum creatinine was elevated in the Cr group but within normal ranges. There were significant exercise-induced increases in cortisol, aldosterone, renin, angiotensin I and II, atrial peptide, and arginine vasopressin. The aldosterone response was slightly greater in the Cr (263%) compared with placebo (224%) group. Peak power was greater in the Cr group during all three 10-s sprints after supplementation and unchanged in the placebo group. There were no reports of adverse symptoms, including muscle cramping during supplementation or exercise.

Conclusion: Cr supplementation augments repeated sprint cycle performance in the heat without altering thermoregulatory responses.

Publication types

  • Clinical Trial
  • Randomized Controlled Trial
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Aldosterone
  • Blood Pressure / physiology
  • Body Mass Index
  • Body Temperature Regulation / drug effects*
  • Body Temperature Regulation / physiology
  • Body Water / physiology
  • Creatine / administration & dosage
  • Creatine / pharmacology*
  • Creatinine / blood
  • Creatinine / urine
  • Exercise / physiology*
  • Heart Rate / physiology
  • Hormones / metabolism
  • Hot Temperature
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Natriuresis / physiology
  • Physical Exertion / physiology
  • Plasma Volume / physiology
  • Potassium / urine
  • Sweating / physiology
  • Urine / physiology


  • Hormones
  • Aldosterone
  • Creatinine
  • Creatine
  • Potassium