The effects of equal-energy portions of different breads on blood glucose levels, feelings of fullness and subsequent food intake

J Am Diet Assoc. 2001 Jul;101(7):767-73. doi: 10.1016/S0002-8223(01)00192-4.


Objective: This study compared the effects of equal-energy portions of 7 different breads on feelings on fullness and subsequent ad libitum food intake. A satiety index score (SI) was calculated for each of the breads.

Design: Within-subject, repeated-measures design.

Subjects and intervention: Ten healthy subjects participated in the study. Subjects fasted for > or =10 hours overnight and then reported to the research center the next morning, where they first completed baseline satiety ratings, gave a fasting blood sample, and then consumed a test bread. Additional finger prick blood samples and satiety ratings were collected at 15-minute intervals over 120 minutes, after which the subjects' ad libitum intake of food was recorded. A satiety index (SI) score was calculated for each test food by dividing the area under the 120-m satiety response curve (AUC) for the test bread by the satiety AUC for the reference bread (regular white bread) and multiplying by 100%.

Results: The mean SI scores for the breads ranged from 100% to 561%, with regular white bread having the lowest SI score. Mean SI scores were negatively correlated with energy intake at a test meal after 120 m (r=-0.88, P<.01, n=7) and total day energy intakes (r=-0.72, P<.05, n=7). The strongest predictor of the breads' SI scores was their portion size and thus energy density. The breads' glycemic responses were not significantly associated with fullness responses.

Applications: Ingredients and food processing methods are available for the production of palatable, high-satiety versions of processed foods, which may be useful for weight control diets. SI scores would be a useful addition to food labels to indicate which foods are less likely to be overeaten and could be used by dietitians to develop weight control plans to help reduce energy intakes without increased hunger.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Area Under Curve
  • Blood Glucose / analysis*
  • Bread*
  • Diet Records
  • Dietary Carbohydrates / administration & dosage*
  • Dietary Fiber / administration & dosage*
  • Energy Intake
  • Fasting
  • Female
  • Food Analysis
  • Humans
  • Hunger / physiology*
  • Insulin / blood
  • Kinetics
  • Male
  • Reference Values
  • Satiation / physiology*


  • Blood Glucose
  • Dietary Carbohydrates
  • Dietary Fiber
  • Insulin