Cholesterol-lowering effects of maitake (Grifola frondosa) fiber, shiitake (Lentinus edodes) fiber, and enokitake (Flammulina velutipes) fiber in rats

Exp Biol Med (Maywood). 2001 Sep;226(8):758-65. doi: 10.1177/153537020222600808.


The effects of mushroom fibers on serum cholesterol and hepatic low-density lipoprotein (LDL) receptor mRNA in rats were investigated. Rats were fed a cholesterol-free diet with 50 g/kg cellulose powder (CP), 50 g/kg maitake (Grifola frondosa) fiber (MAF), 50 g/kg shiitake (Lentinus edodes) fiber (SF), or 50 g/kg enokitake (Flammulina velutipes) fiber (EF) for 4 weeks. There were no significant differences in the body weight, food intake, liver weight, cecum weight, and cecum pH among the groups. Cecal acetic acid, butyric acid, and total short-chain fatty acid (SCFA) concentrations in the SF and EF groups were significantly higher than those in the other groups. The serum total cholesterol concentration in the CP group was significantly higher than that in the MAF and EF groups. The very LDL (VLDL) + intermediate-density lipoprotein (IDL) + LDL-cholesterol concentration in the CP group was significantly higher than that in the MAF, SF, and EF groups, whereas the high-density lipoprotein (HDL)-cholesterol concentration in the EF group was significantly lower than that in the other groups at the end of the 4-week feeding period. The hepatic LDL receptor mRNA level in the EF group was significantly higher than that in the CP group. The fecal cholesterol excretion in the MAF, SF, and EF groups was significantly higher than that in the CP group. The results of this study demonstrate that MAF and EF lowered the serum total cholesterol level by enhancement of fecal cholesterol excretion, and in particular, by enhancement of hepatic LDL receptor mRNA in EF group.

MeSH terms

  • Acetic Acid / metabolism
  • Agaricales / chemistry*
  • Animals
  • Blotting, Southern
  • Body Weight / drug effects
  • Butyrates / metabolism
  • Cecum / metabolism
  • Cholesterol / metabolism*
  • Cholesterol 7-alpha-Hydroxylase / metabolism
  • Dietary Fiber / therapeutic use*
  • Fatty Acids, Volatile / metabolism
  • Hydrogen-Ion Concentration
  • Hydroxymethylglutaryl CoA Reductases / metabolism
  • Hypercholesterolemia / drug therapy*
  • Lentinula / chemistry*
  • Liver / enzymology
  • Male
  • Organ Size / drug effects
  • Plant Extracts / therapeutic use*
  • RNA / metabolism
  • RNA, Messenger / metabolism
  • Rats
  • Rats, Inbred F344
  • Receptors, LDL / metabolism
  • Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction
  • Shiitake Mushrooms / therapeutic use*
  • Time Factors


  • Butyrates
  • Dietary Fiber
  • Fatty Acids, Volatile
  • Plant Extracts
  • RNA, Messenger
  • Receptors, LDL
  • RNA
  • Cholesterol
  • Hydroxymethylglutaryl CoA Reductases
  • Cholesterol 7-alpha-Hydroxylase
  • Acetic Acid