Therapy with antibiotics in recurrent urinary tract infections may destroy colonies of Oxalobacter formigenes in the intestinal tract. A lack of oxalate degradation caused by the absence of this bacterium is suggested to contribute to the hyperabsorption of dietary oxalate and to the increase in urinary oxalate excretion. The present study was performed to evaluate the effect of recurrent urinary tract infections and subsequent changes induced in the urinary excretion profile in female calcium oxalate stone formers. Serum biochemical profiles, 24-h urinary parameters, and the personal characteristics of 57 female calcium oxalate stone patients with recurrent urinary tract infections (RUTI) were compared with 78 female calcium oxalate stone patients without a history of urinary tract infection. All subjects were recruited during the same period. In female patients with RUTI, urinary oxalate excretion was significantly higher (0.374 mmol/day) than in females without urinary tract infection (0.308 mmol/day) (P < 0.05). Moreover, the mean 24-h pH value and urinary sodium excretion were significantly higher in women with RUTI than in women without a history of urinary tract infection. The significantly higher urinary oxalate excretion in female calcium oxalate stone formers with recurrent urinary tract infections may be associated with the application of antibiotics and a subsequent temporary or permanent decolonization of Oxalobacter formigenes.