The evolution of the brow lift in aesthetic plastic surgery

Plast Reconstr Surg. 2001 Oct;108(5):1409-24. doi: 10.1097/00006534-200110000-00048.


For nearly 100 years, aesthetic improvement of the aging face has included surgical elevation of the brow. Early attempts to correct brow ptosis were largely unsuccessful. Recognizing the need to modify the frown muscles heralded the achievement of results previously unobtainable. Within the past decade, the minimal incision approach to brow lifting afforded with the endoscope radically changed surgical options in forehead rejuvenation. Further advances have added to these options and have provided a palette of alternatives in aesthetic correction of the upper one-third of the aging face.

Publication types

  • Historical Article

MeSH terms

  • Eyebrows / surgery*
  • Facial Muscles / surgery
  • Female
  • Forehead / surgery
  • History, 20th Century
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Rhytidoplasty / history*
  • Rhytidoplasty / methods