Mechanical signaling through connective tissue: a mechanism for the therapeutic effect of acupuncture

FASEB J. 2001 Oct;15(12):2275-82. doi: 10.1096/fj.01-0015hyp.


The mechanism of action of acupuncture remains largely unknown. The reaction to acupuncture needling known as 'de qi', widely viewed as essential to the therapeutic effect of acupuncture, may be a key to understanding its mechanism of action. De qi includes a characteristic needling sensation, perceived by the patient, and 'needle grasp' perceived by the acupuncturist. During needle grasp, the acupuncturist feels pulling and increased resistance to further movement of the inserted needle. We hypothesize that 1) needle grasp is due to mechanical coupling between the needle and connective tissue with winding of tissue around the needle during needle rotation and 2) needle manipulation transmits a mechanical signal to connective tissue cells via mechanotransduction. Such a mechanism may explain local and remote, as well as long-term effects of acupuncture.

Publication types

  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.

MeSH terms

  • Acupuncture Therapy*
  • Animals
  • Autocrine Communication
  • Collagen / ultrastructure
  • Connective Tissue / anatomy & histology
  • Connective Tissue / innervation
  • Connective Tissue / physiology*
  • Culture Techniques
  • Fibroblasts / cytology
  • Humans
  • Mechanoreceptors / physiology
  • Models, Biological
  • Needles
  • Pain Management
  • Paracrine Communication
  • Rats
  • Signal Transduction*
  • Skin
  • Stress, Mechanical
  • Torque


  • Collagen