Use of anti-infective agents during lactation: Part 2--Aminoglycosides, macrolides, quinolones, sulfonamides, trimethoprim, tetracyclines, chloramphenicol, clindamycin, and metronidazole

J Hum Lact. 2001 Feb;17(1):54-65. doi: 10.1177/089033440101700111.


Because many antibiotics are excreted into breast milk, it can be difficult for a practitioner to choose an antibiotic for a lactating patient that will have minimal risks to her nursing infant. This article is the second of a three-part series discussing the use of anti-infective agents during lactation. The authors review general information regarding use and common side effects for several classes of antibiotics. They also summarize information, including documented milk concentrations, milk-to-plasma ratios, and other pharmacokinetic properties, in a table that can help practitioners choose antibiotics that may be considered safe to use in the lactating mother.

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Anti-Bacterial Agents / adverse effects*
  • Anti-Bacterial Agents / pharmacokinetics
  • Anti-Bacterial Agents / therapeutic use
  • Anti-Infective Agents / adverse effects*
  • Anti-Infective Agents / pharmacokinetics
  • Anti-Infective Agents / therapeutic use
  • Drug Therapy, Combination / adverse effects
  • Drug Therapy, Combination / pharmacokinetics
  • Drug Therapy, Combination / therapeutic use
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Lactation / drug effects
  • Lactation / physiology*
  • Milk, Human / chemistry*
  • Milk, Human / drug effects


  • Anti-Bacterial Agents
  • Anti-Infective Agents