Effects of intranasal midazolam and rectal diazepam on acute convulsions in children: prospective randomized study

J Child Neurol. 2002 Feb;17(2):123-6. doi: 10.1177/088307380201700206.


In this study, the effects and side effects of rectal diazepam and intranasal midazolam were compared in the treatment of acute convulsions in children to develop a practical and safe treatment protocol. In the diazepam group, the seizures of 13 (60%) patients terminated in 10 minutes; however, 9 (40%) patients did not respond. In the midazolam group, 20 (87%) patients responded in 10 minutes, but 3 (13%) patients did not respond. Regarding the anticonvulsant effect, midazolam was found to be more effective than diazepam, and the difference was statistically significant (P < .05). The necessity of a second drug for the seizures that did not stop with the first drug was higher in the diazepam group than the midazolam group, and the difference was statistically significant (P < .05). We conclude that as an antiepileptic agent, intranasal midazolam is more effective than rectal diazepam. After administration, we did not observe any serious complications. Further investigations are necessary; however, intranasal administration is easy, so if the nasal drop and spray forms used in some European countries and the United States are available worldwide, it will be very useful for physicians in the emergency room.

Publication types

  • Clinical Trial
  • Comparative Study
  • Randomized Controlled Trial

MeSH terms

  • Administration, Intranasal
  • Administration, Rectal
  • Adolescent
  • Anticonvulsants / administration & dosage
  • Anticonvulsants / adverse effects
  • Child
  • Child, Preschool
  • Data Interpretation, Statistical
  • Electroencephalography / drug effects
  • Epilepsy / drug therapy*
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Infant
  • Male
  • Mathematical Computing
  • Midazolam / administration & dosage*
  • Midazolam / adverse effects
  • Prospective Studies
  • Seizures / drug therapy*


  • Anticonvulsants
  • Midazolam