Visceral leishmaniosis is a widespread and potentially fatal disease of dogs and humans common in the Mediterranean region, the Middle East, and South America. Canine leishmaniosis is most frequently treated with the drugs meglumine antimoniate, allopurinol, amphotericin B, or a combination of meglumine antimoniate and allopurinol. Therapy with the currently used drugs often achieves temporary clinical improvement and changes in immunologic parameters with restoration of the ability to mount parasite-specific cell mediated responses and decrease in anti-leishmanial antibody titers. However, treatment usually does not prevent relapse of disease or eliminate parasite carriage. Due to the current lack of an ultimate and effective therapy for canine leishmaniosis, new drugs, delivery systems and treatment strategies are necessary to achieve a consistent parasitological cure in infected dogs.