Fimbriated Salmonella enterica serovar typhimurium abates initial inflammatory responses by macrophages

Infect Immun. 2002 Aug;70(8):4273-81. doi: 10.1128/IAI.70.8.4273-4281.2002.


Oral immunization of mice with a Salmonella vaccine expressing colonization factor antigen I (CFA/I) from enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli results in the rapid onset of interleukin-4 (IL-4) and IL-5 production, which explains the observed elevations in mucosal immunoglobulin A (IgA) and serum IgG1 antibodies. In contrast, oral immunization with the Salmonella vector does not result in the production of Th2-type cytokines. To begin to assess why such differences exist between the two strains, it should be noted that in vitro infection of RAW 264.7 macrophages resulted in the absence of nitric oxide (NO) production in cells infected with the Salmonella-CFA/I vaccine. This observation suggests differential proinflammatory cytokine production by these isogenic Salmonella strains. Upon measurement of proinflammatory cytokines, minimal to no tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha), IL-1alpha, IL-1beta, or IL-6 was produced by Salmonella-CFA/I-infected RAW 264.7 or peritoneal macrophages, but production was greatly induced in Salmonella vector-infected macrophages. Only minute levels of IL-12 p70 were induced by Salmonella vector-infected macrophages, and none was induced by Salmonella-CFA/I-infected macrophages. The absence of IL-12 was not due to overt increases in production of either IL-12 p40 or IL-10. CFU measurements taken at 8 h postinfection showed no differences in colonization in RAW 264.7 cells infected with either Salmonella construct, but there were differences in peritoneal macrophages. However, after 24 h, the Salmonella vector strain colonized to a greater extent in RAW 264.7 cells than in peritoneal macrophages. Infection of RAW 264.7 cells or peritoneal macrophages with either Salmonella construct showed no difference in macrophage viabilities. This evidence shows that the expression of CFA/I fimbriae alters how macrophages recognize or process salmonellae and prevents the rapid onset of proinflammatory cytokines which is typical during Salmonella infections.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.
  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.

MeSH terms

  • Adhesins, Escherichia coli / genetics
  • Adhesins, Escherichia coli / immunology*
  • Animals
  • Bacterial Proteins / genetics
  • Bacterial Proteins / immunology*
  • Cell Line
  • Cells, Cultured
  • Cytokines / biosynthesis*
  • Fimbriae Proteins*
  • Fimbriae, Bacterial / immunology*
  • Genetic Vectors / genetics
  • Genetic Vectors / immunology*
  • Interleukin-1 / biosynthesis
  • Interleukin-10 / biosynthesis
  • Interleukin-12 / biosynthesis
  • Interleukin-6 / biosynthesis
  • Macrophages / cytology
  • Macrophages / immunology*
  • Macrophages / microbiology
  • Macrophages, Peritoneal / cytology
  • Macrophages, Peritoneal / immunology*
  • Mice
  • Mice, Inbred BALB C
  • Nitric Oxide / immunology
  • Salmonella typhimurium / genetics
  • Salmonella typhimurium / immunology*
  • Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha / biosynthesis


  • Adhesins, Escherichia coli
  • Bacterial Proteins
  • Cytokines
  • Interleukin-1
  • Interleukin-6
  • Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha
  • colonization factor antigens
  • Interleukin-10
  • Fimbriae Proteins
  • Interleukin-12
  • Nitric Oxide