Transgenic (Tg) mice overexpressing human thioredoxin (TRX), a small redox-active protein, were produced to investigate the role of the protein in a variety of stresses. Bone marrow cells from TRX-Tg mice were more resistant to ultraviolet C-induced cytocide compared with those from wild type (WT) C57BL/6 mice. TRX-Tg mice exhibited extended median and maximum life spans compared with WT mice. Telomerase activity in spleen tissues in TRX-Tg mice was higher than that in WT mice. These results suggest that overexpression of TRX results in resistance against oxidative stress and a possible extension of life span without apparent abnormality in mammals.