To evaluate the antithrombotic activities of puerarin and daidzin from the rhizome of Pueraria lobata, in vitro and ex vivo inhibitory activities of these compounds and their metabolite, daidzein, were measured. These compounds inhibited ADP- and collagen-induced platelet aggregation. Daidzein was the most potent. However, when puerarin and daidzin were intraperitoneally administered, their antiaggregation activities were weaker than when these compounds were administered orally. When in vivo antithrombotic activities of these compounds against collagen and epinephrine were measured, these compounds showed significant protection from death due to pulmonary thrombosis in mice. To evaluate the antiallergic activity of puerarin, daidzin, and daidzein, their inhibitory effects on the release of beta-hexosaminidase from RBL 2H3 cells and on the passive cutaneous anaphylaxis (PCA) reaction in mice were examined. Daidzein exhibited potent inhibitory activity on the beta-hexosaminidase release induced by DNP-BSA and potently inhibited the PCA reaction in rats. Daidzein administered intraperitoneally showed the strongest inhibitory activity and significantly inhibited the PCA reaction at doses of 25 and 50mg/kg with inhibitory activity of 37 and 73%, respectively. The inhibitory activity of intraperitoneally administered daidzein was stronger than those of intraperitoneally and orally administered puerarin and daidzin. Therefore we believe that puerarin and daidzin in the rhizome of Pueraria lobata are prodrugs, which have antiallergic and antithrombotic activities, produced by intestinal microflora.