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Comparative Study
. 2003 Feb;72(2):281-302.
doi: 10.1086/346065. Epub 2002 Jan 16.

Reduced Y-chromosome, but Not Mitochondrial DNA, Diversity in Human Populations From West New Guinea

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Free PMC article
Comparative Study

Reduced Y-chromosome, but Not Mitochondrial DNA, Diversity in Human Populations From West New Guinea

Manfred Kayser et al. Am J Hum Genet. .
Free PMC article

Abstract

To investigate the paternal population history of New Guinea, 183 individuals from 11 regional populations of West New Guinea (WNG) and 131 individuals from Papua New Guinea (PNG) were analyzed at 26 binary markers and seven short-tandem-repeat loci from the nonrecombining part of the human Y chromosome and were compared with 14 populations of eastern and southeastern Asia, Polynesia, and Australia. Y-chromosomal diversity was low in WNG compared with PNG and with most other populations from Asia/Oceania; a single haplogroup (M-M4) accounts for 75% of WNG Y chromosomes, and many WNG populations have just one Y haplogroup. Four Y-chromosomal lineages (haplogroups M-M4, C-M208, C-M38, and K-M230) account for 94% of WNG Y chromosomes and 78% of all Melanesian Y chromosomes and were identified to have most likely arisen in Melanesia. Haplogroup C-M208, which in WNG is restricted to the Dani and Lani, two linguistically closely related populations from the central and western highlands of WNG, was identified as the major Polynesian Y-chromosome lineage. A network analysis of associated Y-chromosomal short-tandem-repeat haplotypes suggests two distinct population expansions involving C-M208--one in New Guinea and one in Polynesia. The observed low levels of Y-chromosome diversity in WNG contrast with high levels of mtDNA diversity reported for the same populations. This most likely reflects extreme patrilocality and/or biased male reproductive success (polygyny). Our data further provide evidence for primarily female-mediated gene flow within the highlands of New Guinea but primarily male-mediated gene flow between highland and lowland/coastal regions.

Figures

Figure  1
Figure 1
Y-chromosome haplogroups and their frequency distribution in WNG and an additional 18 populations from Asia/Oceania. Population abbreviations are as follows: Kor = Korea, Chi = China, TaC = Taiwan Chinese, Tai = Taiwan Aborigines, Phi = Philippines, Vie = Vietnam, Mal = Malaysia, Jav = Java, Bor = southern Borneo, Mol = Moluccas, Ten = Nusa Tenggara, TNB = Tolai New Britain, Tro = Trobriand Islands, PNC = PNG coast, PNH = PNG highlands, WNL = WNG lowlands/coast, WNH = WNG highlands, Coo = Cook Islands, Aus1 = Australia Arnhem Land, Aus2 = Australia Sandy Desert. For haplogroup relationships see figure 2.
Figure  2
Figure 2
Relationship of 16 Y-chromosome haplogroups based on 26 binary markers. Color code is as in figure 1. Dashed lines indicate haplogroups not observed in this data set. Nomenclature is according to The YCC (2002).
Figure  3
Figure 3
Y-chromosome haplogroups and their frequency distribution in regional populations from New Guinea. Population abbreviations are as follows: Dan = Dani, Lan = Lani, Yal = Yali, Una = Una, Ket = Ketengban, Awy = Awyu, Koi = Kombai/Korowai, Muy = Muyu, Map = Mappi, Asm = Asmat, Cit = Citak, SHI = PNG southern highlands, EHI = PNG eastern highlands, NCo = PNG northern coast, and SCo = PNG southern coast. Color code is as in figures 1 and 2.
Figure  4
Figure 4
Median-joining network of 20 Y STR–based haplotypes observed in 54 haplogroup C-M208 chromosomes. Circles denote the haplotype, with the area of the circle proportional to the number of individuals carrying the particular Y STR haplotype. A circle indicating the size that represents one individual is given in the lower right of the figure. Lines denote Y STR mutation steps (one-step distance is indicated in the lower right of the figure); parallel lines represent identical mutations. Network is weighted according to Y STR mutation rates. Population affiliation of haplotypes is as follows: black circles = WNG highlands, striped circles (upward-sloping to the right) = PNG coast, striped circles (downward-sloping to the right) = Trobriand Islands, gray circles = Cook Islands (Polynesia).
Figure  5
Figure 5
Two-dimensional MDS plot of regional populations from New Guinea, from pairwise FST values based on Y-chromosome haplogroups. The MDS stress value equals 0.075. Population abbreviations are as in figure 3. Regional code: ▪ = WNG highlands; □ = WNG lowlands/coast; ● = PNG highlands; ○ = PNG coast/islands.
Figure  6
Figure 6
Two-dimensional MDS-plot of populations from Asia/Oceania from pairwise FST values based on Y-chromosome haplogroups. The MDS stress value equals 0.138. Population abbreviations are as in figure 1. Regional code: □ = eastern/southeastern Asia; ▪ = Australia; ● = Melanesia; ○ = Polynesia.

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