DRL1, a homolog of the yeast TOT4/KTI12 protein, has a function in meristem activity and organ growth in plants

Plant Cell. 2003 Mar;15(3):639-54. doi: 10.1105/tpc.007062.


The DEFORMED ROOTS AND LEAVES1 (DRL1) gene is single copy in the Arabidopsis genome, and based on overall amino acid similarity and conservation of functional domains, the DRL1 protein is homologous with yeast TOT4/KTI12. TOT4/KTI12 associates with Elongator, a multisubunit complex that binds the RNA polymerase II transcription elongation complex. Recessive mutations at the DRL1 locus caused defective organ formation indicative of disorganized shoot, inflorescence, flower, and root meristems. DRL1 is a putative ATP/GTP binding protein; in addition, calmodulin binding activity was demonstrated in vitro for the C terminus of the DRL1 protein. Phenotypic and genetic data position DRL1 relative to regulatory loci for leaf development, in which it acts early. We identified Arabidopsis homologs for the six Elongator components and hypothesize that DRL1 regulates transcription elongation through a putative plant Elongator. Upregulation of the ANGUSTIFOLIA transcript in the strong drl1-2 allele supports this model.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Adaptor Proteins, Signal Transducing
  • Amino Acid Sequence
  • Arabidopsis / genetics
  • Arabidopsis / growth & development*
  • Arabidopsis Proteins / genetics*
  • Arabidopsis Proteins / physiology
  • Calcium / metabolism
  • Calmodulin / metabolism
  • DNA-Binding Proteins / genetics
  • DNA-Binding Proteins / physiology
  • GTP-Binding Proteins / genetics*
  • GTP-Binding Proteins / physiology*
  • Gene Expression Regulation, Developmental
  • Gene Expression Regulation, Plant
  • Meristem / genetics
  • Meristem / growth & development*
  • Molecular Sequence Data
  • Mutation
  • Phenotype
  • Plant Leaves / genetics
  • Plant Leaves / growth & development
  • Repressor Proteins / genetics
  • Repressor Proteins / physiology
  • Saccharomyces cerevisiae Proteins / genetics
  • Saccharomyces cerevisiae Proteins / physiology


  • ANGUSTIFOLIA protein, Arabidopsis
  • Adaptor Proteins, Signal Transducing
  • Arabidopsis Proteins
  • Calmodulin
  • DNA-Binding Proteins
  • DRL1 protein, Arabidopsis
  • KTI12 protein, S cerevisiae
  • Repressor Proteins
  • Saccharomyces cerevisiae Proteins
  • GTP-Binding Proteins
  • Calcium

Associated data

  • GENBANK/AJ428870