Prevention of rickets and vitamin D deficiency: new guidelines for vitamin D intake

Pediatrics. 2003 Apr;111(4 Pt 1):908-10. doi: 10.1542/peds.111.4.908.


Rickets in infants attributable to inadequate vitamin D intake and decreased exposure to sunlight continues to be reported in the United States. It is recommended that all infants, including those who are exclusively breastfed, have a minimum intake of 200 IU of vitamin D per day beginning during the first 2 months of life. In addition, it is recommended that an intake of 200 IU of vitamin D per day be continued throughout childhood and adolescence, because adequate sunlight exposure is not easily determined for a given individual. These new vitamin D intake guidelines for healthy infants and children are based on the recommendations of the National Academy of Sciences.

Publication types

  • Guideline
  • Practice Guideline

MeSH terms

  • Adolescent
  • Breast Feeding
  • Child
  • Child, Preschool
  • Dietary Supplements / standards
  • Drug Administration Schedule
  • Humans
  • Infant
  • Infant Food / standards
  • Infant Nutritional Physiological Phenomena
  • Rickets / prevention & control*
  • Sunlight
  • Vitamin D / administration & dosage*
  • Vitamin D / therapeutic use*
  • Vitamin D Deficiency / prevention & control*


  • Vitamin D