The in vivo and in vitro effects of Cordyceps sinensis (CS) and its extracted fractions on the secretion of testosterone in mice were studied. CS, F2 (water soluble protein), and F3 (poorly water soluble polysaccharide and protein) significantly stimulated in vitro testosterone production in purified mouse Leydig cells. However, F1 (water soluble polysaccharide) had no effect (p>0.05). F2 and F3 stimulated in vitro testosterone production in dose- and time-dependent relationships with maximal responses at 3 mg/ml for 3 h (p<0.05). An in vivo study illustrated that testosterone levels in plasma were significantly increased by CS, F2, and F3, respectively (p<0.05). Because CS, F2, and F3 stimulated both in vitro and in vivo testosterone secretions in mice, it is possible that CS might contribute to an alternative medicine for the treatment of some reproductive problems caused by insufficient testosterone levels in human males.