Oxidation of low density lipoprotein (LDL) has been shown to occur in the artery wall of atherosclerotic lesions in both animal models and human arteries. The oxidant(s) responsible for initiating this process are under intensive investigation and 15-lipoxygenase has been suggested in this context. Another possibility is that nitric oxide and superoxide, generated by cells present in the artery wall, react together to form peroxynitrite which decomposes to form the highly reactive hydroxyl radical. In the present study we have modelled the simultaneous generation of superoxide and nitric oxide by using the sydnonimine, SIN-1 and have investigated its effects on LDL. SIN-1 liberates both superoxide and nitric oxide during autooxidation resulting in the formation of hydroxyl radicals. We have demonstrated that superoxide generated by SIN-1 is not available to take part in a dismutation reaction since it reacts preferentially with nitric oxide. It follows, therefore, that during the autooxidation of SIN-1 little or no superoxide, or perhydroxyl radical will be available to initiate lipid peroxidation. We have shown that SIN-1 is capable of initiating the peroxidation of LDL and also converts the lipoprotein to a more negatively charged form. The SIN-1-dependent peroxidation of LDL is completely inhibited by superoxide dismutase which scavenges superoxide. Neither sodium nitroprusside or S-nitroso-N-acetyl penicillamine, which only produce nitric oxide, are able to modify LDL. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that a product of superoxide and nitric oxide could oxidize lipoproteins in the artery wall and so contribute to the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis in vivo.