Lower glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP) response but similar glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1), glycaemic, and insulinaemic response to ancient wheat compared to modern wheat depends on processing

Eur J Clin Nutr. 2003 Oct;57(10):1254-61. doi: 10.1038/sj.ejcn.1601680.


Objective: To test the hypothesis that bread made from the ancient wheat Einkorn (Triticum monococcum) reduces the insulin and glucose responses through modulation of the gastrointestinal responses of glucose-dependent insulinotrophic polypeptide (GIP) and glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) compared to the responses to bread of modern wheat (Triticum aestivum).

Design: The 3-h postprandial insulinaemic, glycaemic, GIP, and GLP-1 responses to bread made from Einkorn were compared to responses to a traditional Danish wheat loaf. The bread from Einkorn was prepared by 3 different processing methods: leavening with honey-salt added, leavening crushed whole grain, and conventional leavening with yeast added. Bread made from modern wheat was prepared by conventional leavening with yeast added.

Subjects: A total of 11 healthy young men.

Results: The postprandial GIP response was significantly (P<0.001) reduced by the Einkorn breads processed with honey-salt leavening and by using crushed whole grain bread compared to the yeast leavened bread made from modern wheat or from Einkorn. No significant differences were found in the responses of GLP-1, insulin or glucose.

Conclusion: Einkorn honey-salt leavened and Einkorn whole grain bread elicit a reduced gastrointestinal response of GIP compared to conventional yeast bread. No differences were found in the glycaemic, insulinaemic and GLP-1 responses. Processing of starchy foods such as wheat may be a powerful tool to modify the postprandial GIP response.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Area Under Curve
  • Blood Glucose / metabolism*
  • Bread
  • Food Handling / methods*
  • Gastric Inhibitory Polypeptide / metabolism*
  • Gastrointestinal Agents / metabolism
  • Glucagon / metabolism*
  • Glucagon-Like Peptide 1
  • Humans
  • Insulin / blood*
  • Male
  • Peptide Fragments / metabolism*
  • Postprandial Period
  • Protein Precursors / metabolism*
  • Triticum* / classification


  • Blood Glucose
  • Gastrointestinal Agents
  • Insulin
  • Peptide Fragments
  • Protein Precursors
  • Gastric Inhibitory Polypeptide
  • Glucagon-Like Peptide 1
  • Glucagon