Effects of a behavioral intervention, Tai Chi Chih, on varicella-zoster virus specific immunity and health functioning in older adults

Psychosom Med. 2003 Sep-Oct;65(5):824-30. doi: 10.1097/01.psy.0000088591.86103.8f.


Objective: Both the incidence and severity of herpes zoster (shingles) increase markedly with increasing age in association with a decline in varicella-zoster virus (VZV) specific cell-mediated immunity (CMI). This study examined whether a behavioral intervention, Tai Chi Chih (TCC), affects VZV specific immunity and health functioning in older adults who, on average, show impairments of health status and are at risk for shingles.

Methods: Thirty-six men and women (age > or =60 years) were assigned randomly to a 15-week program of TCC instruction (three 45 minute classes per week; N = 18) or a wait list control condition (N = 18). VZV-specific CMI was measured at baseline and at 1-week postintervention. Health functioning (Medical Outcome scale: SF-36) was assessed at baseline, and at 5, 10, and 15 weeks during the intervention, and at 1-week postintervention.

Results: In the intent-to-treat sample, VZV-specific CMI increased 50% from baseline to 1-week postintervention in the TCC group (p < 0.05) but was unchanged in the wait list control group. In those who completed the study, 1-week postintervention SF-36 scale scores for role-physical (p < 0.05) and physical functioning (p < 0.05) were higher in the TCC group (N = 14) as compared with controls (N = 17). Older adults who had impairments of physical status at baseline showed the greatest increases of SF-36 role-physical (p < 0.01) and physical functioning (p < 0.001) during the TCC intervention.

Conclusions: Administration of TCC for 15 weeks led to an increase in VZV-specific CMI. Gains in health functioning were found in participants who received TCC and were most marked in those older adults who had the greatest impairments of health status.

Publication types

  • Clinical Trial
  • Controlled Clinical Trial
  • Randomized Controlled Trial
  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.

MeSH terms

  • Aged
  • Aging / immunology
  • Antibodies, Viral / blood*
  • California
  • Female
  • Herpes Zoster / immunology
  • Herpes Zoster / prevention & control
  • Herpesvirus 3, Human / immunology*
  • Humans
  • Immunity, Cellular
  • Immunocompetence
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Psychoneuroimmunology
  • Tai Ji*
  • Treatment Outcome


  • Antibodies, Viral