Background: The operative morbidity and mortality for patients with gangrenous cholecystitis (GC) remains high. Our objective was to identify preoperative prognostic factors for GC in order to distinguish this subset of patients with acute cholecystitis (AC).
Methods: From 1/98 to 11/01 the medical records of patients who presented with the diagnosis of AC were reviewed. Univariate and multivariate analysis were performed on this retrospective data.
Results: Of 113 patients with acute cholecystitis, 45 (39.8%) had histologically confirmed gangrenous cholecystitis. Nine variables were identified that were associated with GC by univariate analysis: age > or =51 years, African-American race, white blood cell count > or =15,000, diabetes, pericholecystic fluid, asparate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase, and lipase. Two variables were identified by multivariate analysis: diabetes, and white blood cell count.
Conclusions: Our data suggest that patients with a history of diabetes and white blood cell count >15,000 to be at an increased risk for having GC upon presentation and they should have urgent surgical intervention.