Background: A relatively high percentage of energy intake as protein has been shown to increase satiety and decrease energy efficiency during overfeeding.
Aim: To investigate whether addition of protein may improve weight maintenance by preventing or limiting weight regain after weight loss of 5-10% in moderately obese subjects.
Design of the study: In a randomized parallel design, 148 male and female subjects (age 44.2 +/- 10.1 y; body mass index (BMI) 29.5 +/- 2.5 kg/m2; body fat 37.2 +/- 5.0%) followed a very low-energy diet (2.1 MJ/day) during 4 weeks. For subsequent 3 months weight-maintenance assessment, they were stratified according to age, BMI, body weight, restrained eating, and resting energy expenditure (REE), and randomized over two groups. Both groups visited the University with the same frequency, receiving the same counseling on demand by the dietitian. One group (n=73) received 48.2 g/day additional protein to their diet. Measurements at baseline, after weight loss, and after 3 months weight maintenance were body weight, body composition, metabolic measurements, appetite profile, eating attitude, and relevant blood parameters.
Results: Changes in body mass, waist circumference, REE, respiratory quotient (RQ), total energy expenditure (TEE), dietary restraint, fasting blood-glucose, insulin, triacylglycerol, leptin, beta-hydroxybutyrate, glycerol, and free fatty acids were significant during weight loss and did not differ between groups. During weight maintenance, the 'additional-protein group' showed in comparison to the nonadditional-protein group 18 vs 15 en% protein intake, a 50% lower body weight regain only consisting of fat-free mass, a 50% decreased energy efficiency, increased satiety while energy intake did not differ, and a lower increase in triacylglycerol and in leptin; REE, RQ, TEE, and increases in other blood parameters measured did not differ.
Conclusion: A 20% higher protein intake, that is, 18% of energy vs 15% of energy during weight maintenance after weight loss, resulted in a 50% lower body weight regain, only consisting of fat-free mass, and related to increased satiety and decreased energy efficiency.