We explored associations of religious orientation with dietary behavior among participants in the Eating for a Healthy Life Study (EHL), a randomized low-fat, high-fruit/vegetable dietary intervention trial in religious organizations. Data in this report are from baseline telephone surveys of 2,375 people, which assessed dietary behaviors (Fat- and Fiber-Related Diet Behavior Questionnaire) and religiosity (Allport-Ross Religious Orientation Scale). After adjusting for demographic characteristics, higher extrinsic (socially motivated) religious orientation was positively associated with low-fat dietary fat behaviors (P=.0438). No associations were observed for dietary behaviors and intrinsic (life based on religious beliefs) religious orientation. These results support further exploration of religious orientation's potential influence on dietary behaviors and its applicability to dietary interventions.