Energy compensation following the consumption of caloric beverages is said to be imprecise and incomplete. This study compared the relative impact on satiety and energy intakes of the physical form of foods versus the timing of consumption. Thirty-two volunteers (16 men and 16 women), aged 18-35 years, consumed equal-energy preloads (1254 kJ, 300 kcal) of regular cola (710 ml, 24 oz) or fat-free raspberry cookies (87 g, 3 oz) on two occasions each. The preloads were presented either 2 h or 20 min before the test meal. Their principal ingredient was sugar. Participants rated motivational states prior to ingestion and at 30-min intervals. A tray lunch was presented at 12:30 p.m., and food consumption was measured. Regular cola and cookies suppressed hunger ratings equally and no temporal difference in satiety was observed. Cola, but not cookies, resulted in lower ratings of thirst. Energy intakes at lunch were lower when the preload was consumed closer to the test meal (20 min) but was not affected by physical form (liquid vs. solid). Cola, but not cookies, reduced water intakes at lunch. There was no satiety deficit following the ingestion of a beverage as compared with a solid food. The timing of consumption may be more important than the physical form of energy consumed.
Copyright 2004 Elsevier Inc.