Post-proteomic identification of a novel phage-encoded streptodornase, Sda1, in invasive M1T1 Streptococcus pyogenes

Mol Microbiol. 2004 Oct;54(1):184-97. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2958.2004.04255.x.


The M1T1 strain remains the most frequently isolated strain from group A streptococcal (GAS) infection cases worldwide. We previously reported that M1T1 differs from the fully sequenced M1 SF370 strain. To better understand the reason for the persistence and increased virulence of M1T1, we analysed its secreted proteome and identified two virulence proteins that are not present in the sequenced M1 SF370 strain: streptococcal pyrogenic exotoxin A (SpeA) and a streptodornase D (SdaD) homologue. In the present study, we determined the nucleotide sequence of the M1T1 streptodornase and found that its deduced amino acid sequence is highly similar to other streptococcal streptodornases, and is most closely related to the SdaD of GAS strain M49. M1T1 Sda shares two highly conserved domains with several DNases and putative DNases in streptococci; however, it possesses a unique C-terminal amino acid sequence. Thus, we named the protein Sda1, and we detected the presence of the sda1 gene in 16 M1T1 clinical isolates. The cloned and expressed Sda1 degrades both streptococcal and mammalian DNA at physiological pH. Amino acid similarity analyses of known GAS deoxyribonucleases suggest that Sda1 may be a chimeric protein created through recombination events. Moreover, a natural mutation that resulted in longer Sda1 and SdaD as compared to other GAS DNases was found to confer increased activity on the protein. Analysis of the sequences flanking sda1 determined that it is carried by a prophage or a prophage-like element inserted in the tRNA-Ser gene of M1T1 GAS. Ongoing studies in our laboratory aim to determine the contribution of Sda1 to the virulence of this globally disseminated M1T1 strain.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.
  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.

MeSH terms

  • Amino Acid Sequence
  • Bacterial Proteins / chemistry
  • Bacterial Proteins / genetics
  • Bacterial Proteins / metabolism
  • Base Sequence
  • Deoxyribonuclease I* / chemistry
  • Deoxyribonuclease I* / genetics
  • Deoxyribonuclease I* / metabolism
  • Humans
  • Molecular Sequence Data
  • Proteome
  • Sequence Analysis, DNA
  • Streptococcus Phages / genetics*
  • Streptococcus pyogenes / enzymology*
  • Streptococcus pyogenes / genetics
  • Streptococcus pyogenes / pathogenicity
  • Streptococcus pyogenes / virology


  • Bacterial Proteins
  • Proteome
  • Deoxyribonuclease I
  • Sda1 protein, Streptococcus pyogenes

Associated data

  • GENBANK/AY452036