Smoking and systemic disease

Med Clin North Am. 2004 Nov;88(6):1431-51, x. doi: 10.1016/j.mcna.2004.07.001.


Cigarette smoking is associated with a number of adverse health effects, including well-established links to cardiopulmonary disease and several cancers. Some of the other important systemic diseases associated with smoking are the subjects of this article, such as diabetes mellitus and insulin resistance and thyroid diseases. Also reviewed here is the negative impact of smoking on male and female infertility, on selected dermatologic conditions, and on gastrointestinal diseases including peptic ulcer and inflammatory bowel diseases.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Endocrine System Diseases / etiology*
  • Endocrine System Diseases / physiopathology
  • Female
  • Gastrointestinal Diseases / etiology*
  • Gastrointestinal Diseases / physiopathology
  • Humans
  • Infertility / etiology*
  • Infertility / physiopathology
  • Male
  • Risk Factors
  • Skin Diseases / etiology*
  • Skin Diseases / physiopathology
  • Smoking / adverse effects*