The BLADE-ON-PETIOLE1 (BOP1) gene of Arabidopsis thaliana is required for proper leaf morphogenesis. BOP1 regulates leaf differentiation in a proximal-distal manner, and represses the expression of three class I knotted-like homeobox (knox) genes during leaf formation. Utilizing a map-based approach, we identified the molecular nature of the BOP1 gene, which encodes a BTB/POZ domain protein with ankyrin repeats. BOP1 is a member of a small gene family in Arabidopsis that includes the disease resistance regulatory protein NPR1. Insertions in and around BOP1 cause distinct lesions in leaf morphogenesis, revealing complex regulation of the locus. BOP1 transcripts are initially detectable in embryos, where they specifically localize to the base of the developing cotyledons near the SAM. During vegetative development, BOP1 is expressed in young leaf primordia and at the base of the rosette leaves on the adaxial side. During reproductive development, BOP1 transcripts are detected in young floral buds, and at the base of the sepals and petals. Our results indicate that BOP1 encodes a putative regulatory protein that modulates meristematic activity at discrete locations in developing lateral organs. This is the first report on a plant protein that plays a key role in morphogenesis with the distinctive combinatorial architecture of the BTB/POZ and ankyrin repeat domains.