Human African trypanosomiasis (HAT), due to the transmission of Trypanosoma brucei (T. b.) gambiense and T. b. rhodesiense by tsetse flies, is re-emerging in inter-tropical Africa. It evolves from the hemolymphatic Stage I to the meningo-encephalitic Stage II. The latter is generally treated with melarsoprol, an arseniate provoking often a deadly encephalopathy. A precise determination of the HAT evolution stage is therefore crucial. Stage II patients show: (i) a deregulation of the 24-h distribution of the sleep-wake alternation; (ii) an alteration of the sleep structure, with frequent sleep onset rapid eye movement (REM) periods (SOREMPs). Gambian HAT was diagnosed in eight patients (four, Stage II; three, Stage I; one, "intermediate" case) at the trypanosomiasis clinic at Viana (Angola). Continuous 48-h polysomnography was recorded on Oxford Medilog 9000-II portable systems before and after treatment with melarsoprol (Stage II) or pentamidine (Stage I and "intermediate" stage). Sleep traces were visually analyzed in 20-s epochs using the PRANA software. Stage II patients showed the complete sleep-wake syndrome, partly reversed by melarsoprol 1 month later. Two Stage I patients did not experience any of these alterations. However, the "intermediate" and one Stage I patients exhibited sleep disruptions and/or SOREMPs, persistent after pentamidine treatment. Polysomnography may represent a diagnostic tool to distinguish the two stages of HAT. Especially, SOREMPs appear shortly after the central nervous system invasion by trypanosomes. The reversibility of the sleep-wake cycle and sleep structure alterations after appropriate treatment constitutes the basis of an evaluation of the healing process.