A genetic code Boolean structure. I. The meaning of Boolean deductions

Bull Math Biol. 2005 Jan;67(1):1-14. doi: 10.1016/j.bulm.2004.05.005.


This paper proposes a genetic code Boolean structure derived from hydrogen bond numbers and chemical types of bases, purines and pyrimidines. It shows that in such Boolean structure, deductions comprise physico-chemical meaning. In particular, codons with adenine as a second base coding to hydrophilic amino acids are not deductible from codons with uracil in the same position, which code to hydrophobic amino acids. Boolean deductions could help us describe the gene evolution process. For instance, most of the reported mutations that confer drug resistance to the HIV protease gene correspond to deductions. What is more, in the human beta-globin gene a similar situation appears where most of the single codon mutations correspond to Boolean deductions from the respective wild-type codon.

MeSH terms

  • Algorithms
  • Base Sequence
  • Drug Resistance, Viral / genetics
  • Evolution, Molecular
  • Genetic Code / genetics*
  • Globins / genetics
  • Globins / metabolism
  • HIV Protease / genetics
  • Humans
  • Models, Genetic*
  • Monte Carlo Method
  • Mutation / genetics
  • Nucleotides / chemistry
  • Nucleotides / genetics
  • Oxygen / metabolism
  • Statistics, Nonparametric


  • Nucleotides
  • Globins
  • HIV Protease
  • Oxygen