Vibrio fischeri belongs to the Vibrionaceae, a large family of marine gamma-proteobacteria that includes several dozen species known to engage in a diversity of beneficial or pathogenic interactions with animal tissue. Among the small number of pathogenic Vibrio species that cause human diseases are Vibrio cholerae, Vibrio parahaemolyticus, and Vibrio vulnificus, the only members of the Vibrionaceae that have had their genome sequences reported. Nonpathogenic members of the genus Vibrio, including a number of beneficial symbionts, make up the majority of the Vibrionaceae, but none of these species has been similarly examined. Here we report the genome sequence of V. fischeri ES114, which enters into a mutualistic symbiosis in the light organ of the bobtail squid, Euprymna scolopes. Analysis of this sequence has revealed surprising parallels with V. cholerae and other pathogens.