Daily intake of a formulated tomato drink affects carotenoid plasma and lymphocyte concentrations and improves cellular antioxidant protection

Br J Nutr. 2005 Jan;93(1):93-9. doi: 10.1079/bjn20041315.


The salutary characteristics of the tomato are normally related to its content of carotenoids, especially lycopene, and other antioxidants. Our purpose was to verify whether the daily intake of a beverage prototype called Lyc-o-Mato((R)) containing a natural tomato extract (Lyc-o-Mato((R)) oleoresin 6 %) was able to modify plasma and lymphocyte carotenoid concentrations, particularly those of lycopene, phytoene, phytofluene and beta-carotene, and to evaluate whether this intake was sufficient to improve protection against DNA damage in lymphocytes. In a double-blind, cross-over study, twenty-six healthy subjects consumed 250 ml of the drink daily, providing about 6 mg lycopene, 4 mg phytoene, 3 mg phytofluene, 1 mg beta-carotene and 1.8 mg alpha-tocopherol, or a placebo drink. Treatments were separated by a wash-out period. Plasma and lymphocyte carotenoid and alpha-tocopherol concentrations were determined by HPLC, and DNA damage by the comet assay. After 26 d of consumption of the drink, plasma carotenoid levels increased significantly: concentrations of lycopene were 1.7-fold higher (P<0.0001); of phytofluene were 1.6-fold higher (P<0.0001); of phytoene were doubled (P<0.0005); of beta-carotene were 1.3-fold higher (P<0.05). Lymphocyte carotenoid concentrations also increased significantly: that of lycopene doubled (P<0.001); that of phytofluene was 1.8-fold higher (P<0.005); that of phytoene was 2.6-fold higher (P<0.005); that of beta-carotene was 1.5-fold higher (P<0.01). In contrast, the alpha-tocopherol concentration remained nearly constant. The intake of the tomato drink significantly reduced (by about 42 %) DNA damage (P<0.0001) in lymphocytes subjected to oxidative stress. In conclusion, the present study supports the fact that a low intake of carotenoids from tomato products improves cell antioxidant protection.

Publication types

  • Clinical Trial
  • Controlled Clinical Trial
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Antioxidants / pharmacology
  • Beverages* / analysis
  • Carotenoids / blood*
  • Cross-Over Studies
  • DNA Damage*
  • Double-Blind Method
  • Female
  • Food, Formulated
  • Humans
  • Lymphocytes / metabolism*
  • Male
  • Oxidative Stress
  • Regression Analysis
  • Solanum lycopersicum*
  • alpha-Tocopherol / blood*


  • Antioxidants
  • Carotenoids
  • alpha-Tocopherol