We evaluated the impact of a malaria intervention in Bolifamba in rural Cameroon. The intervention consisted of educating the community on management of malaria and provision of a dispensary for early diagnosis and treatment. In July 2001, prior to the intervention, a questionnaire was used to obtain information on knowledge of and practices toward childhood malaria of 185 mothers of children aged 0-5 years. The same questionnaire was administered to 120 of the 185 mothers, one-year post-intervention. Clinical and laboratory investigations were carried out on children whose mothers were interviewed. A comparison of pre- and post-intervention data indicated significant changes in (i) the use of appropriate malaria treatment (from 50% to 81.7%); (ii) recognition of splenomegaly as a feature of malaria (from 18.4% to 80.8%); (iii) prevalence of splenomegaly (from 26.5% to 13.3%); (iv) prevalence of fever (from 27.8% to 13.3%); (v) parasite prevalence (from 60.5% to 44.2%) and (vi) severe malaria anaemia (from 2.6% to 0.0%). These findings revealed that proper education of villagers, particularly mothers, on malaria and the presence of health facilities, where treatment is readily available at affordable cost, close to villages, are important strategies that would reduce malaria morbidity and mortality significantly.