Down-regulation of the androgen receptor (AR) is being evaluated as an effective therapy for the advanced stages of prostate cancer. We report that Ebp1, a protein identified by its interactions with the ErbB3 receptor, down-regulates expression of AR and AR-regulated genes in the LNCaP prostate cancer cell line. Using microarray analysis, we identified six endogenous AR target genes, including the AR itself, that are down-regulated by ebp1 overexpression. Chromatin immunoprecipitation assays revealed that Ebp1 was recruited to the prostate-specific antigen gene promoter in response to the androgen antagonist bicalutamide, suggesting that Ebp1 directly affected the expression of AR-regulated genes in response to androgen antagonists. Ebp1 expression was reduced in cells that had become androgen-independent. Androgens failed to stimulate either the growth of ebp1 transfectants or transcription of AR-regulated reporter genes in these cells. The agonist activity of the antiandrogen cyproterone acetate was abolished in ebp1 transfectants. In severe combined immunodeficient mice, Ebp1 overexpression resulted in a reduced incidence of LNCaP tumors and slower tumor growth. These findings suggest that Ebp1 is a previously unrecognized therapeutic target for treatment of hormone refractory prostate cancer.