Risks of human conotruncal heart defects associated with 32 single nucleotide polymorphisms of selected cardiovascular disease-related genes

Am J Med Genet A. 2005 Sep 15;138(1):21-6. doi: 10.1002/ajmg.a.30924.


Investigating possible genetic polymorphisms and gene-environment interactions in the etiology of human conotruncal defects is a prudent research approach. In this study we explore gene-only and gene-environment effects of 32 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) on conotruncal defect risks. The genes bearing these SNPs participate in one of five pathogenetic processes, homocysteine metabolism, coagulation, cell-cell interaction, inflammatory response, and blood pressure regulation. We used DNA samples and data from a California population-based case-control interview study (1987-1988 birth cohort). We employed a multilocus allele-specific hybridization assay. Allelic variants were determined by genotyping 155 infants with conotruncal defects (cases) and 437 infants without malformations (controls). Among the 32 SNPs, four were associated with odds ratios of 2 or more, and two with odds ratios of 0.5 or less. The four SNPs were F2 G20210A (prothrombin) with an odds ratio of 2.5 (95% confidence interval; 0.9-7.0), F7 promoter (-323) 10-bp del/ins with an odds ratio of 2.3 (0.8-6.8), ITGB3 leu33pro (platelet glycoprotein IIIa) with an odds ratio of 2.2 (0.9-5.7), and NPPA T2238C (atrial natriuretic precursor peptide) with an odds ratio of 2.9 (0.8-10.1). Two SNPs were associated with decreased risks: TNF (tumor necrosis factor, G (-376A)) and ADD1 gly460trp (alpha adducin) with odds ratios of 0.5 (0.1-2.3) and 0.5 (0.2-1.9), respectively. Analyses that investigated a potential gene-nutrient interaction between maternal periconceptional vitamin use and MTHFR genotypes did not indicate that the CT or TT genotype contributed to conotruncal defect risk in infants even in the absence of maternal use of multivitamin supplements with folic acid. Analyses that investigated a potential interaction on risk between NOS3 genes and maternal cigarette smoking, revealed some evidence for higher risk of conotruncal defects in infants whose mothers smoked cigarettes periconceptionally and who had one of the variant alleles for NOS3 A(-922G) or NOS3 glu298asp compared to those infants whose mothers did not smoke and whose genotypes were wild-type. Our results provide some support for involvement of genetic variation of biologically relevant candidate genes for some birth defects whose pathogenesis may be related to altered vascular tone or integrity. In particular, NPPA appears to be a good candidate gene for conotruncal defects and warrants further investigation.

Publication types

  • Comparative Study
  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.
  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.

MeSH terms

  • California
  • Cardiovascular Diseases / genetics*
  • Case-Control Studies
  • Gene Frequency
  • Genetic Predisposition to Disease / genetics*
  • Genotype
  • Heart Defects, Congenital / genetics*
  • Humans
  • Infant
  • Methylenetetrahydrofolate Reductase (NADPH2) / genetics
  • Multivariate Analysis
  • Odds Ratio
  • Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide*
  • Risk Factors
  • Smoking
  • Vitamins / administration & dosage


  • Vitamins
  • Methylenetetrahydrofolate Reductase (NADPH2)