Mitochondrial DNA sequence and gene organization in the [corrected] Australian blacklip [corrected] abalone Haliotis rubra (leach)

Mar Biotechnol (NY). 2005 Nov-Dec;7(6):645-58. doi: 10.1007/s10126-005-0013-z. Epub 2005 Sep 28.


The complete mitochondrial DNA of the blacklip abalone Haliotis rubra (Gastropoda: Mollusca) was cloned and 16,907 base pairs were sequenced. The sequence represents an estimated 99.85% of the mitochondrial genome, and contains 2 ribosomal RNA, 22 transfer RNA, and 13 protein-coding genes found in other metazoan mtDNA. An AT tandem repeat and a possible C-rich domain within the putative control region could not be fully sequenced. The H. rubra mtDNA gene order is novel for mollusks, separated from the black chiton Katharina tunicata by the individual translocations of 3 tRNAs. Compared with other mtDNA regions, sequences from the ATP8, NAD2, NAD4L, NAD6, and 12S rRNA genes, as well as the control region, are the most variable among representatives from Mollusca, Arthropoda, and Rhynchonelliformea, with similar mtDNA arrangements to H. rubra. These sequences are being evaluated as genetic markers within commercially important Haliotis species, and some applications and considerations for their use are discussed.

Publication types

  • Comparative Study
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Base Pairing
  • Base Sequence
  • Cloning, Molecular
  • DNA Primers
  • DNA, Mitochondrial / genetics*
  • Gastropoda / genetics*
  • Gene Order / genetics*
  • Genetic Markers / genetics
  • Genetic Variation*
  • Molecular Sequence Data
  • Sequence Analysis, DNA
  • Victoria


  • DNA Primers
  • DNA, Mitochondrial
  • Genetic Markers